Td corrigé B1. NEWCOM Objectives pdf

B1. NEWCOM Objectives

Daniel Roviras ...... within diversified country specific operational service patterns, with third generation systems like WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-CDMA and, ...




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an Aerospace Center - DLR, IMST GmbH, Vodafone, Vienna Telecommunications Research Centre, Budapest University, Poznan University of Technology, Ghent University., Université Catholique de Louvain, IMEC, European Space Agency, Aalborg University, Chalmers University of Technology, Karlstad University, Uppsala University, Lund University, Ericsson, University of Oulu, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Bergen, Nera Research, University of Southampton, University of Surrey, University of Edinburgh, Central Research Labs Ltd.

Coordinator
Prof. Sergio Benedetto
Istituto Superiore Mario Boella
benedetto@polito.it
Fax: +39 011 5645909

Table of Contents
 TOC \o "1-2" \h \z  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873708" Table of Contents  PAGEREF _Toc38873708 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873709" Proposal summary page  PAGEREF _Toc38873709 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873710" Proposal Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc38873710 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873711" B0. Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873711 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873712" B0.1 Preliminary remarks  PAGEREF _Toc38873712 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873713" B0.2 The resources required  PAGEREF _Toc38873713 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873714" B0.3 The resources available  PAGEREF _Toc38873714 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873715" B0.4 The choice  PAGEREF _Toc38873715 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873716" B0.5 The outcome  PAGEREF _Toc38873716 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873717" B1. NEWCOM Objectives  PAGEREF _Toc38873717 \h 8
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873718" B1.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873718 \h 8
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873719" B1.2 NEWCOM strategic objectives and targets  PAGEREF _Toc38873719 \h 8
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873720" B1.3 NEWCOM plan  PAGEREF _Toc38873720 \h 8
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873721" B1.3.1 Research plan  PAGEREF _Toc38873721 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873722" B1.3.2 Dissemination plan  PAGEREF _Toc38873722 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873723" B1.3.3 Exploitation plan  PAGEREF _Toc38873723 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873724" B2. Relevance to the objectives of the IST priority  PAGEREF _Toc38873724 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873725" B2.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873725 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873726" B2.2 Scientific Relevance  PAGEREF _Toc38873726 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873727" B2.3 Technical Relevance  PAGEREF _Toc38873727 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873728" B2.4 Socio-economic Relevance  PAGEREF _Toc38873728 \h 19
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873729" B3. POTENTIAL IMPACT  PAGEREF _Toc38873729 \h 21
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873730" B3.1 NEWCOM’s potential contributions to standardization efforts  PAGEREF _Toc38873730 \h 21
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873731" B3.2 Europe's need for cohesion and coordination  PAGEREF _Toc38873731 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873732" B3.3. NEWCOM’s contribution to the strengthening of the European position in wireless communications  PAGEREF _Toc38873732 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873733" B3.4 Experience of NEWCOM partners in collaborative programmes  PAGEREF _Toc38873733 \h 23
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873734" B3.5 Summary and conclusions  PAGEREF _Toc38873734 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873735" B4. Degree of Integration and the joint programme of activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873735 \h 25
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873736" B4.1 Integrating Activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873736 \h 25
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873737" B.4.2 Program for Jointly Executed Research Activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873737 \h 28
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873738" Description of Departments  PAGEREF _Toc38873738 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873739" Department 1: Analysis and Design of Algorithms for Signal Processing at Large in Wireless Systems  PAGEREF _Toc38873739 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873740" D1.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873740 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873741" D1.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873741 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873742" D1.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873742 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873743" Deparment 2: MIMO Radio Channel Modelling for Design Optimisation and Performance Assessment of Next Generation Communication Systems  PAGEREF _Toc38873743 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873744" D2.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873744 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873745" D2.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873745 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873746" D2.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873746 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873747" Department 3: Design, Modeling and Experimental Characterisation of RF and Microwave Devices and Subsystems  PAGEREF _Toc38873747 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873748" D3.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873748 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873749" D3.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873749 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873750" D3.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873750 \h 38
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873751" DEPARTMENT 4: Analysis, Design and Implementation of Digital Architectures and Circuits  PAGEREF _Toc38873751 \h 38
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873752" D4.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873752 \h 38
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873753" D4.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873753 \h 38
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873754" D4.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873754 \h 40
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873755" Department 5: Source Coding and Reliable Delivery of Multimedia Contents  PAGEREF _Toc38873755 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873756" D5.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873756 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873757" D5.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873757 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873758" D5.3 Integration activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873758 \h 42
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873759" Department 6: Protocols and Architectures, and Traffic Modeling for (Reconfigurable/ Adaptive) Wireless Networks  PAGEREF _Toc38873759 \h 43
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873760" D6.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873760 \h 43
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873761" D6.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873761 \h 43
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873762" D6.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873762 \h 44
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873763" Department 7: QoS Provision in Wireless Networks: Radio Resource Management, Mobility, and Security  PAGEREF _Toc38873763 \h 45
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873764" D7.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873764 \h 45
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873765" D7.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873765 \h 45
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873766" D7.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873766 \h 47
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873769" Description of Projects  PAGEREF _Toc38873769 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873770" pROJECT A. Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  PAGEREF _Toc38873770 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873771" PA.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873771 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873772" PA.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873772 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873773" PA.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873773 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873774" pROJECT b. Ultra-wide Band Communication Systems  PAGEREF _Toc38873774 \h 50
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873775" PB.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873775 \h 50
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873776" PB.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873776 \h 51
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873777" PB.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873777 \h 51
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873778" pROJECT C. Functional Design Aspects of Future Generation Wireless Systems  PAGEREF _Toc38873778 \h 51
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873779" PC.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873779 \h 51
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873780" PC.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873780 \h 52
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873781" PC.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873781 \h 53
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873782" project D. Reconfigurable Radio for Interoperable Transceivers  PAGEREF _Toc38873782 \h 54
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873783" PD.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873783 \h 54
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873784" PD.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873784 \h 54
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873785" PD.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873785 \h 55
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873786" PROJECT E. Cross Layer Optimisation  PAGEREF _Toc38873786 \h 55
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873787" PE.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873787 \h 55
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873788" PE.2 Research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873788 \h 56
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873789" PE.3 Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873789 \h 56
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873790" B4.3 Activities to spread excellence  PAGEREF _Toc38873790 \h 57
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873791" B4.4 Management Activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873791 \h 59
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873792" B5. Description of the network and the excellence of the participants  PAGEREF _Toc38873792 \h 62
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873793" National and Kapodistrian University of Athens  PAGEREF _Toc38873793 \h 65
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873794" (Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications)  PAGEREF _Toc38873794 \h 65
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873795" Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia (CTTC)  PAGEREF _Toc38873795 \h 68
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873796" B5.1 Curricula vitae of Advisory Board members  PAGEREF _Toc38873796 \h 84
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873797" B.5.2 New participants  PAGEREF _Toc38873797 \h 86
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873798" B.5.3 Other countries  PAGEREF _Toc38873798 \h 86
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873799" B6. Quality OF INTEGRATION  PAGEREF _Toc38873799 \h 87
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873800" B6.1 General Remarks  PAGEREF _Toc38873800 \h 87
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873801" B6.2 Indicators of Integration  PAGEREF _Toc38873801 \h 87
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873802" B6.3 Quantitative indicators of integration produced by NEWCOM  PAGEREF _Toc38873802 \h 87
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873803" B6.4 Qualitative indicators of integration produced by NEWCOM  PAGEREF _Toc38873803 \h 88
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873804" B6.5 Commitment of the partners  PAGEREF _Toc38873804 \h 89
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873805" B7 Organisation and management  PAGEREF _Toc38873805 \h 90
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873806" B7.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc38873806 \h 90
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873807" B7.2 Governing bodies  PAGEREF _Toc38873807 \h 91
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873808" B7.3 Procedures  PAGEREF _Toc38873808 \h 93
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873809" B7.4 Quality Control and Reporting  PAGEREF _Toc38873809 \h 94
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873810" B7.5 Knowledge and IPR management  PAGEREF _Toc38873810 \h 94
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873811" B7.6 NEWCOM Website  PAGEREF _Toc38873811 \h 95
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873812" B7.7 Sustainability of the network after the end of EU funding  PAGEREF _Toc38873812 \h 95
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873813" B7.8 Handling of EC funds  PAGEREF _Toc38873813 \h 95
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873814" B7.9 CVs of key ISMB personnel  PAGEREF _Toc38873814 \h 95
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873815" B8. Joint Programme of Activities – First 18 months  PAGEREF _Toc38873815 \h 97
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873816" B8.1 Integration Activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873816 \h 97
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873817" B8.2 Joint research activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873817 \h 99
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873818" NEWCOM Departments  PAGEREF _Toc38873818 \h 99
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873819" B8.3 Activities to Spread Excellence  PAGEREF _Toc38873819 \h 125
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873820" B8.4 Management Activities  PAGEREF _Toc38873820 \h 127
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873821" B9. Other IssuES  PAGEREF _Toc38873821 \h 128
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873822" B.10 GENDER ISSUES  PAGEREF _Toc38873822 \h 129
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873823" B.10.1. Gender Action Plan  PAGEREF _Toc38873823 \h 130
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc38873824" B.10.2. Specific Gender Issues in NEWCOM  PAGEREF _Toc38873824 \h 130

Appendix I: List of Activities (as separate document)
Appendix II: Work Package Forms (as separate document)
Appendix III: Gantt Chart of all Work Packages (as separate document)
Appendix IV: Letters of Intent (as separate document)
Proposal summary page
Proposal Full Title

Network of Excellence in Wireless COMmunications

Proposal acronym: NEWCOM

Strategic Objective Addressed
Mobile and Wireless Systems Beyond 3G
Proposal Abstract
The NEWCOM (Network of Excellence in Wireless COMmunications) proposal aims at creating a European network that links in a cooperative way a large number of leading research groups addressing the Strategic Objective “Mobile and wireless systems beyond 3G”, a frontier research area of the Priority Thematic Area of IST.
The main objectives of NEWCOM are the following:
Strengthening, development and integration of research in the field
Empowerment of groups and individuals via dissemination activities
Effective use of produced knowledge via exploitation-commercialisation strategies.
To achieve those objectives, NEWCOM has created an elaborate plan of initiatives which revolve around the key notion of a Virtual Knowledge Centre: in other words, NEWCOM will effectively act as a distributed (decentralised) university, organised in a matrix fashion. The columns represent the seven NEWCOM (Disciplinary) Departments, characterised by basic research on well-established topics and grouping leading European researchers active in those topics. The rows represent NEWCOM Projects, identified by important, “hot” problems whose solution requires multidisciplinary skills drawn from NEWCOM Departments and aggregated in a meaningful way to promote the problem solution.
NEWCOM’s Joint Programme of Activities involves researcher exchanges, organisation of workshops and conferences, the preparation of graduate courses coordinated with the PhD programs of the academic partners to be diffused via NEWCOM high-speed network, the broad dissemination of scientific results, the promotion of entrepreneurship among its researchers, by setting up a policy of IPR encouragement and their exploitation through the creation of start-ups inside its distributed campus.
The “glue” that holds this construct together are the tools of Integration, the unifying thread making all objectives and goals a feasible vision, and Management, that maintains a clear separation, reflected in the foreseen governing bodies, between “administrative” and “scientific” tasks.
NEWCOM objectives are scientifically and socio-economically relevant to the Information Society Technologies (IST) 2003-2004 Work Programme issued by the European Commission, with particular reference to the focuses and outcomes listed in its Section 2.3.1.4 “Mobile and Wireless Systems beyond 3G”.
B0. Introduction
B0.1 Preliminary remarks
A reading of recent technological history seems to indicate that mobile communication systems create a new “generation” (that is, technological version) roughly every 10 years. First-generation analogue systems were introduced in the early 1980’s, then second-generation digital came in the early nineties with Europe-originating Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) as the clear winner, and now third-generation Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is slowly unfolding all over the world. Intensive conceptual and research work toward the definition of a future (fourth-generation) system started some time ago. However, calling it a “4-G” system does not seem quite appropriate and agreed upon, therefore different terminology has been used, such as “Wireless World” (see the Book of Visions 2001 prepared by the Wireless World Research Forum), or “Systems beyond 3G”, as in the VI Framework Information Society Technologies (IST) 2003-2004 Programme issued by the European Commission. The reason for this stems from several facts:
The change of business focus from 2G to 2.5-3G systems, which shifted from voice services to multimedia communication services over the Internet, thus requiring much higher transfer rates and better visual representation.
The paradigm shift brought about by the rapid (and, as usual, unexpected) diffusion of high-speed wireless Local Area Networks (LAN) that is apparently competing with the successful deployment and business rationale of 3Gcellular networks.
The yearning to communicate freely and flexibly, inspired by the widespread use of the wired Internet, which points to a structure of multi-layered ad hoc networks, as opposed to a rigid cellular architecture.

Yet, from this rather foggy landscape, a few clear paths are likely to emerge soon:
The core network, still constrained in 3G systems by the legacy of 2G networks, will evolve toward a TCP/IP-based core network, serving a wireless Internet radio access based on packet switching for all services, including voice.
The frequency bands to be occupied will most likely move above 5 GHz, with the consequence of requiring a nano-cell (or even pico-cell) structure. This, in turn, will make it difficult, if not impossible, to design the network on the basis of the standard cellular concept to provide continent-wide coverage.
The network will evolve towards an ad-hoc wireless network, where base stations are installed where they are needed, and connected to each other in a self-configuring way to transfer TCP-IP traffic, similarly to the present Internet wired architecture; the resulting structure would then be a distribution of high-speed wireless LANs serving local hot spots (airports, shopping centers, etc.), inter-connected by a backbone cellular network overlaying them.
The picture outlined above, which is nowadays widely accepted (with lots of subtle distinctions) as the prevailing paradigm for “beyond 3G” systems, requires a deep and innovative research effort from the scientific community, in order for the latter to successfully solve problems such as: the inter-technology mobility management between 3G and ad hoc wireless LANs, the coexistence of a variety of traffic/services with different and sometimes conflicting Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, new multiple-access techniques in a hostile environment like a channel severely affected by frequency selective fading, the quest for higher data rates also in the overlay cellular system, scaling with those feasible in a wireless LAN environment and permitting seamless handover with the same degree of service to the user, the cross-layer optimisation of physical coding/modulation schemes with the medium access control (MAC) protocols to conform with fully packetised transmission as well as the TCP/IP rules of the core network, and the like.
The proposal of NEWCOM (Network of Excellence in Wireless COMmunication) addresses the complicated, stimulating environment outlined above, imbued with the ambition to provide a significant and quantifiable contribution to European leadership in the field of wireless communications. The network we propose is a fairly large one, and we are cognisant of the difficult challenges involved in its successful management and overall direction. Its size, however, has been the end result of an extensive process of evaluation of various alternatives undertaken by the “fathers” of this proposed endeavour. This rationale is sketched here to aid in the evaluation of the proposal.
B0.2 The resources required
The scientific resources required to face the challenges of the design of future wireless (and mobile) systems must be very broad and interdisciplinary, spanning the implementation of hardware/software devices and subsystems, expertise in the design of signal processing algorithms that deal with various sub-systems like modulation, channel coding, diversity and multi-input multi-output antennas, beam-forming algorithms, their performance and complexity optimisation, the design of multi-access strategies and MAC protocols, multimedia source coding and its interaction with channel coding, and higher-layer protocols for safe and efficient content delivery, to name a representative sample. The systems and physical networks that this proposal addresses are notoriously complex and elaborate, and the size both of this proposal and the (human) network it outlines inevitably mirror this reality.
B0.3 The resources available
In all of the above required expertise, European universities, research centers and industries offer excellent research groups with world-wide visibility, albeit in a dispersed fashion; that is, they are spread across Europe, and none of them can offer true research excellence in more than a few of the required fields. Having identified highly experienced and effective research groups covering all requisite expertise, an identification based on personal knowledge and acquaintance with international conferences, journals, and societies, we were facing two alternatives: the first suggested splitting the large group into smaller subsets, under criteria of more narrow and “homogeneous” interests, and thus to propose a few NoEs on different aspects of the wireless communication world. The second, instead, pointed to a large NoE, grouping all expertise under one umbrella so as to exploit inter-disciplinary cross-pollination and “knowledge-of-scale”.
B0.4 The choice
The first solution certainly facilitates the design and management of activities, but then, since the problems to solve are inherently “broadband” and multi-faceted, it would simply shift the coordination/ integration problems to a higher stratum. This would, in turn, make things more difficult since different NoE’s are not meant, and might not plan, to collaborate toward the solution of problems lying above and beyond the activities and objectives defined in their individual proposals.
Thus, we opted for the second solution, with a clear understanding of its inherent difficulties, but determined to face them, and to use as a proof-of-concept the process of preparing the present proposal. In these challenging times, we have bet on a bold and ambitious step.
Close to the completion of this preliminary step (proposal preparation), we can affirm that the long process that led to this document has been successful beyond our expectations, since the researchers involved in the preparation and description of the network activities have worked together in charming cooperation and have given birth, in advance, to NEWCOM Departments and Projects.
We also learned in the process that the management overhead in these large initiatives is significant, but deemed it as necessary to achieve results above and beyond the (quite legitimate) satisfaction of the individual or of a small group in advancing his/her narrow research perspective.
B0.5 The outcome
The next Sections of this document will hopefully illuminate our intentions and perhaps make this introduction redundant. We consider it nevertheless important and truthful to clarify that, although broad in scope, NEWCOM will not cover all aspects related to wireless communication. This NoE focuses on the research issues related to the lower four layers of the ISO/OSI paradigm, with one excursion into the application layer, regarding the knowledge/specification of the most important parameters that guarantee a fast/accurate delivery of multimedia content.
{ap: do we really wan to speculate on the nature of other NoE proposals? }We are aware that numerous NoE proposals are likely to be submitted in the wireless communication field. Some of them may be largely competing in scope with NEWCOM, but others are characterised by focusing on narrower objectives included in NEWCOM programme (like for example ultra-wide band communication), or on complementary aspects (like for example services and applications ?????check this???? ).
While a choice will have to be made among competing NoEs, we are willing to cooperate with all other NoEs operating in the same framework and aiming at complementary or different (in width and depth) scopes, should NEWCOM proposal able to get through the selection process.}


B1. NEWCOM Objectives
B1.1 Introduction
This Section describes briefly the salient objectives of this proposed NoE in Wireless COMmunications (NEWCOM in the following), which plans to address the "beyond 3G" priority of the IST 6th Framework Programme. The objectives will be initially mapped here to a list of strategic targets or goals, each of which will be expanded upon in separate Sections later on (see B.4 and B.8), along with the detailed plans that instantiate these targets. These later Sections contain an explicit description of the measurable and verifiable milestones that make the achievement of such targets tangible. Finally, we identify here the main features of the planned initiatives, the execution of which will assure the success of the overall vision.
B1.2 NEWCOM strategic objectives and targets
The fundamental premise justifying NEWCOM is that Europe already possesses excellent research groups in the field of wireless communications, teams which are familiar with each other, and which already have some experience of mutual scientific cooperation in small groups, mostly on a national scale. However, the current landscape suffers from problems of thematic fragmentation, lack of coordination on a large scale, under-funding and lack of a critical mass in certain vital areas. These force us to seek a greater degree of integration as a meaningful mechanism for overcoming such problems, thus the NEWCOM proposal. The main way by which it intends to offer a solution to these problems is by creating a trans-European network which will link a large number of leading European research groups in a highly integrated, carefully harmonized, cooperative fashion. It will focus on the development of a large, mutually agreeable research program encompassing most of the critical aspects of wireless multimedia communications, the vital role of which in furthering the European vision and agenda is amply described in the following Sections B2 and B3.
The main objectives of NEWCOM can be summarized as follows:
Strengthening, development and integration of research in the said field;
Empowerment of groups and individuals via dissemination activities;
Effective use of produced knowledge via exploitation-commercialization strategies.
We note that a harmonious blend of all the above objectives is necessary not only for a related NoE to be successful, but also for the broader goal of creating a competitive and long-term secure European presence in this hotly contested technological field worldwide. As such, the objectives above can be delineated further in terms of the related targets, as follows:
(a) for the research objective:
Promotion of high-quality, cutting-edge research in a cross-institutional way
Inclusion of all major research topics in the research space chosen
Careful coordination of research across partners
Continuous assessment of research quality and related feedback
(b) for the dissemination objective:
Creation of effective mechanisms for the wide and timely distribution of knowledge, inside and outside NEWCOM
Maximisation of dissemination effectiveness by tailoring the message to the audience (scholars, industry, standards bodies, international organisations, etc.)
Enhancement of complementarity between NEWCOM’s dissemination/education activities and other related institutions (e.g., national Universities)
(c) for the exploitation-of-results objective:
IPR selection mechanisms and encouragement of protection (patents) and respective exploitation
Careful calibration of the conflicting goals of wide and timely scientific dissemination on the one hand, and protection of intellectual property on the other.
B1.3 NEWCOM plan
To achieve this visionary list of objectives and the related goals, NEWCOM has created an elaborate plan of initiatives which revolve around the key notion of a Virtual Knowledge Center: in other words, NEWCOM will effectively act as a distributed (decentralised) university, organised in a matrix fashion. The columns represent NEWCOM (Disciplinary) Departments, characterised by well-established research topics and grouping leading European researchers active in those topics; the rows represent NEWCOM Projects, identified by important, “hot”, problems whose solutions require multidisciplinary skills drawn from NEWCOM Departments and aggregated in a meaningful way to promote the problem solution (see next subsection on Research objectives). The chosen Departments will organise graduate teaching, training and continuing education courses, in which the main research results will be distilled and made available to European students (inside and outside NEWCOM) and industry employees (see successive subsection on Dissemination objectives).
NEWCOM will also promote entrepreneurship among its researchers, by setting up a policy of IPR encouragement and exploitation, aiming at the creation of start-ups inside its distributed campus (see successive subsection on IPR exploitation objectives).
The “glue” that holds all this construct together is the tool of Integration: it is the unifying thread making all objectives and goals a feasible vision; thus, it permeates (in the background) all objective descriptions, above and beyond the section explicitly devoted to it, namely Section B.4.1.
B1.3.1 Research plan
The research plan herein consists of the following initiatives:
B1.3.1.1 Department and Projects
To fulfill its research objectives, NEWCOM will create 7 (Disciplinary) Departments, which will aggregate researchers of the member institutions active in basic topics on wireless communications, as well as 5 Projects. Each Department and each Project will be led by a Department/Project Head, elected by the Department/Project researchers, who will be in charge of the execution of the activities agreed upon by the NEWCOM Scientific Committee (SC) and NEWCOM Advisory Board (AB), and written in the Joint Programme of Activities. The process of creating NEWCOM Departments/Projects will be monitored through the following main steps, all of which can be viewed as measurable and verifiable milestones:
Identification of Department/Project topics. These are listed in the Joint Programme of Activities, Section B4 of this proposal, and will be revised according to the outcomes of the Negotiation Phase.
Identification of NEWCOM members involved, including names of researchers and PhD students.
Election of the Department/Project Head.
Draft programme of the Department/Project annual activity prepared by the Department/Project Head to be approved by NEWCOM SC and AB.
Monitoring of the development of activities through periodic meetings of the Department/Project Heads with the Scientific Committee.
Presentation of the main research results during the NEWCOM Days, yearly workshops devoted to this task.
B1.3.1.2 Joint Programme of Activities
The Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) will be prepared by the Scientific Committee, based on the draft proposals received by the Department/Project Heads. The Programme will be discussed and approved by the Advisory Board, which has been formed of carefully selected leading world-wide known researchers (see Section B7). These will meet at least once a year with the Scientific Committee. The Joint Programme of Activities for the first 18 months is already contained in Part B8 of this document, and will be revised according to the outcomes of the Negotiation Phase.
In all the steps leading to the definition of the JPA, a true, effective university/industrial partnership will be promoted. To this partnership, the universities/public research centers will bring research vision, innovation, identification of new opportunities, newly created technologies, and, of course, highly skilled graduates. Industries bring practical wisdom, experience, and a sense of relevance that is a precious contribution to the identification of the value of research themes.
The JPA will contain a detailed description of the main activities, including research, integration, dissemination, exploitation and management objectives. Each activity will be framed into precise timelines, with milestones and deliverables.
The measurable and verifiable objectives in this case are the documented steps leading to the JPA, as well as the final product, namely the JPA itself.
B1.3.1.3 Scientific plan
In each Department/Project research topics will be selected and pursued based on the following criteria:
Medium-long term and pre-competitiveness: themes of interest of the European wireless community at large, with no immediate, short-term industrial implications
Scientific relevance: as Section B4 makes clear, NEWCOM Departments and Projects have been focused on areas and open research problems that lie at the very core of wireless communications, without risk of rapid obsolescence
Compliance with NEWCOM members’ skills: NEWCOM members are characterized by a common history of excellence in basic research, which assures the consonance of this criterion with the previous two.
There is a clear added value of integration in the process of choosing (in close collaboration) the scientific research targets, a process that ensures a meaningful balance between one’s narrow individual interests and the scientific value judgment of the total research community represented herein.
The measurable and verifiable objectives here are the joint scientific achievements, which attest to the appropriateness of the chosen topics. They will consist of jointly co-authored papers, IPR documents, involvement of NEWCOM members in the Department/Projects, etc.
B1.3.2 Dissemination plan
Dissemination of research results through prestigious Journal papers is what scientists in the university/research community do on a habitual basis. In NEWCOM, we attribute to the word “dissemination” a stronger meaning: than merely the publication of results, the NEWCOM Scientific Board will encourage and value the choice of the major conferences and Journals, with emphasis on the latter, chosen because of their high archival value. To make this invitation stronger, NEWCOM will formally recognise the best papers by instituting the NEWCOM Best Paper Award, presented to the author(s) of the paper(s) chosen by the Advisory Board as the major yearly contribution to the wireless communication area at large. In this respect, a measurable objective will be the number of papers published in certain Journals by NEWCOM researchers as the network evolves.
A second, important dissemination objective is directed toward European industry (members and non-members of NEWCOM). NEWCOM will organise NEWCOM Days, where the main research results of the year will be presented to an invited audience of industrial representatives in the area of wireless communication. Moreover, special presentations of focused results will be organised in the premises of interested European industries.
The third dissemination objective will address SME’s, in the sense of encouraging joint research programmes and/or exploring the possibility of exploiting NEWCOM generated results through joint agreement of IPR exploitation. This activity will be directed toward existing and future NEWCOM member SME’s, but not reserved for them exclusively.
B1.3.3 Exploitation plan
NEWCOM, through its management, will take particular care of its exploitation plans in general, and its patent policy in particular (a major component of exploitation). This is a delicate point, as university researchers are naturally prone to publishing their results as soon as possible, for vital career-promotion purposes. By setting up a fast process of relevance evaluation, NEWCOM will implant in its researchers the good habit of first submitting their results/ideas to the IPR Manager inside the Executive Board for a first evaluation, and to slightly postpone the publication until directly after the (possible) submission of patent application.
For highly promising results/ideas, the IPR Manager will encourage the direct exploitation by NEWCOM researchers of their IP value, through the creation of start-ups facilitated by the presence of several incubators within the Consortium, in particular Politecnico I3P and GET incubators.

NoAcronym
(country)Organisation nameResearcher NamesPh. D. Student Names1ISMB
(Italy)Istituto Superiore Mario BoellaSergio Benedetto
Francesco Sottile
Marco Gavelli
Alessandro Buresta
Alessandro Miglietti
Riccardo Scopino
Giulio Galante
Edoardo Calia
Daniele Mazzocchi
Vittorio Cannas2NCUA/IASA
(Greece)National Capodistrian University of Athens - Institute of Accelerating Systems and ApplicationsAndreas Polydoros
Angelos Katsaggelos
Ioannis Tigelis
Dionyssis Reisis
Nicolas Dimitriou
Konstantinos Nikitopoulos
Ionnis DagresEmmanuel Markatatos
Andreas Zalonis
Argyris Levissianos
George Metaxas3UoT
(Greece)University of ThessalyLeandros Tassiulas
Apostolos Traganitis
Jordan Koutsopoulos
Leonidas Georgiadis
Nicholas Sidiropoulos
Emmanouel VarvarigosAthanasio Korakis
Gentian Jakllari
Filipos Koravos
Dmitris Zisiadis
Spyros Kopsidas4Intracom
(Greece)IntracomNikos Pronios
Panagiotis Dallas5TECHNION
(Israel)TechnionShlomo Shamai (Shitz)
Yoseph Steinberg
Shraga Bross
Yonina EldarHanan Weinggarten
Michael Katz
Aminadav Weisel6Bilkent
(Turkey)Bilkent UniversityErdal Arikan
Nail Akar
Murat Alanyali
Abdullah Atalar
Cengiz Aydin
Hayrettin Koymen
Ezhan Karasan
Tarik ReyhanOnur Alparslan
Hakan Boyraz
Nuri Celik
Inanc Inan
Feyza Keceli
Canan Pamuk
Cem Sahin
Onur Savas
Muhammed Senlik
Namik Sengezer
Yavuz Yapici
Emre Yetginer
Gokhan Moral7ISIK
(Turkey)ISIK UniversityErdal Panayirci
Siddik Yarman
Ahmet Aksen
Umit Aygolu
Hakan Cirpan
Mustafa KaramanOnur Oguz
Haci Pinarbasi
Habib Senol
Adnan Sen
Ozgur Oruc
Kenan Aksoy8UPC
(Spain)Universitat Politècnica de CatalunyaRamon Agustí
José A. Delgado-Penín
Jordi Pérez-Romero
Oriol Sallent
Antoni Gelonch
Xavier Revés
Jose Luis Valenzuela
Ana PérezJuan Sánchez
Ferran Adelantado
Lorenza Giupponi
Jakub Majkowski
Joan Bas
Antonio Morell
Antonio Pascual9CTTC
(Spain)Telecommunications Technological Centre of CataloniaCarles Anton-Haro
A. Lagunas
Carlos Bader
Jordi Mateu
Carolina Pinart
Stefan PfletschingerMarc Realp10UPF
(Spain)Universitat Pompeu FabraJuan Rendon
Carles Sans
Joan Vinyes Anna Escudero
Xavier Arregui11TELEFONICA
(Spain)TelefónicaLuis Cucala Garcia
Pedro Olmos González
Primitivo Matas12UoC
(Italy)University of Catania.Sergio PALAZZO
Alfio Lombardo
Aurelio La Corte
Giacomo Morabito
Giovanni Schembra
Andrea CalvagnaMario Barbera
Laura Galluccio
Francesco Licandro
Sabrina Sicari13UoP
(Italy)University of PisaUmberto Mengali
Marco Luise
D’Amico
A.N. D’Andrea
F. Giannetti
V. Lottici
M. Morelli
R. ReggianniniC. Carbonelli
L. Giugno
C. Saccomando
L. Benvenuti
E. Sanguinetti14CERCOM
(Italy)Politecnico di Torino - CERCOMGabriella Olmo
Ezio Biglieri
Roberto Garello
Guido Montorsi
Giorgio Taricco
Bartolo Scanavino
Alberto Perotti
Mario Orefice
Letizia Lopresti
Giuseppe Vecchi
Patrizia Savi
Paola Pirinoli
Ladislau Matekovits
Giovanni Ghione
Umberto Pisani
Marco Pirola
Simona Donati
Fabio Fagnani
Andrea Ferrero
Guido Masera
Gianluca Piccinini
Maurizio Zamboni
Maurizio Martina
Fabrizio Vacca
Enrico Magli
Marco Grangetto
Davide Quaglia
Marco Ajmone Marsan
Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini
Michela Meo Alex Graell
Giuseppe Durisi
Francesca Vipiana
Guillermo Vietti
Francesco Bertazzi
Vittorio Camarchia
Luca Merello
Tammam Tillo
Barbara Penna
Roberta Fracchia
Michele Garetto
Paola Laface15I3P
(Italy)I3P PolitecnicoVincenzo Pozzolo
Michele Patrissi
Mario Vittone16STM
(Italy)ST MicroelectronicsPio Quarticelli
Enrica Filippi
Andrea Giorgi
Fabio Osnato17GET
(France) Groupe des Ecoles de TélécommunicationsClaude Berrou (ENST Br.)
ENST PARIS
Karim Abed-Meraim
Jean-Claude Belfiore
Joseph Boutros
Philippe Ciblat
Gérard Cohen
Eric Moulines
Olivier Rioul
Jorge Rodriguez
Robert Vallet
Gilles Zemor

ENST BR.
Emmanuel Boutillon
Catherine Douillard
Michel Jézéquel
Xavier Lagrange
Cyril Lahuec
Christophe Laot
Annie Picart
Ramesh Pyndiah
Samir Saoudi

EURECOM
Christian Bonnet
Giuseppe Caire
Raymond Knopp
Dirk Slock

INT
Jean-Pierre Delmas
Francois Desbouvries
Christine Letrou
Phillip RegaliaENST PARIS
Mohammad Aoude
Miguel Bazdrech
Sergiy Burykh
Slim Chabbouh
Sylvain Chaillou
Robert Chavanne
Pascal Cheung
Sami Chtourou
Anne-Laure Deleuze
Herve Dubreil
Georgia Fiederopoulou
Sophie Gault
Alaa Ghaith
Nicolas Gresset
Emmanuelle Grosicki
Elie Jandot dit d'Anjou
Ines Kammoun
Fatma Kharrat
Hedi Laamari
Axel Le Poupon
Sabine Leveiller
Guillaume Neveux
Ghaya Rekaya
Ahmed Saadani
Anahid Safavi
Emilio Strinati

ENST BR.
Matthieu Arzel
Laura Conde Canencia
Raùl Crespo Saucedo
Javier Cuevas Ordaz
Nicolas Enderlé
Horacio Gonzalez Garcia
David Gnaedig
Raphaël Le Bidan
Jérôme Le Masson
Emeric Maury
Olivier Moreno
Abdel-Majid Mourad
Jad Nasreddine
Daniel Trezentos
Sonia Zaibi
Rong Zhou

EURECOM
Maxime Guillaud
Albert Guillén i Fàbregas
Mari Kobayashi
Younes Souilmi
Stefania Sesia

INT
Habti Abeida
Boujemaa Ait El Fquih
Anca Fluerasu
Antonin Hermanek18SUPELEC
(France)SUPELECHikmet Sari
Armelle Wautier
Walid Hashem
Antoine Berthet
Lionel Husson
Jean-Claude DanyStefan Ataman
Clemence Alasseur
Ovidiu Leulescu
Joselyn Fiorina19CNRS
(France)Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)Pierre Duhamel
Antoine Chevreuil
Inbar Fijalkow
Walid Hachem
Jean François Helard
Pascal Larzabal
Philippe Loubaton
Jacques Palicot
Aline Roumy
Loic Barnault
Adrien Renoult
Marcella Soamiadana
E. Zabre
Fabrice Portier
Matthieu Crussière
Pierre Jallon
Anne Ferréol
J. M. Ocloo
Eric Chaumette
Chang Ming Lee
Rachel Chiang
Hang Nguyen
Charly Poulliat
Ilhem Ouachani
Mohamed Kamoun20TeSA/CNRS
(France)Cooperative Lab. “Telecommunications for Space and Aeronautics” (TeSA)Marie-Laure Boucheret
André-Luc Beylot
Christian Fraboul
Jerome Lacan
Gérard Maral
Beatrice Paillassa
Tanguy Perennou
Daniel Roviras
Jean-Luc Scharbag
Nathalie ThomasFabrice Arnal
Florestan de Belleville
Ridha Chaggara
Mathieu Dervin
Julien Fasson
Jerome Fimes
Fabien Langlet
Milena Planells-Rodriguez21FRANCET
(France)France TélécomJean-Claude Carlach
Raphaël Visoz
Olivier Seller
Samson Lasaulce
Maryline Hélard
Yuan Yi.22PHILIPS
(France)Philips FranceBernard Badefort
Eric Mauger
Frédéric Nicolas23THALES
(France)Thales CommunicationsCedric Demeure
Dominique Merel
Jacques Eudes24MOTOROLA
(France)Motorola Labs - FranceMarc de Courville
Karine Gosse25TURBOCPT
(France)TurboConceptNathalie Brengarth
Jacky Tousch26ETH
(Switzerland)Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyAndreas Loeliger
Wittneben
Dahlhaus
Helmut Boelcskei
Gabriel Meyer
Frank Althaus
Marc Kuhn
Rohit Nabar
Samuli Visuri
Jan HansenThomas Zasowski
Ingmar Hammerström
Boris Rankov
Moritz Borgmann
Markus Gaertner
Daniel Baum
Felix Kneubuehler
Pedro Coronel
Ulrich Schuster
Justin Dauwels
Maja Ostojic27Elektrobit
(Switzerland)ElektrobitAndreas Stucki
Patrik Jourdan28TUM/LNT
(Germany)Munich University of Technology (TUM), Institute of Communications Engineering (LNT)Joachim Hagenauer
Norbert Goertz
Thomas Stockhammer
Michael Mecking
Stephan Baero
Klaus Eichin
Guenter SoederMichael Tuechler
Johannes Zangl
Ioannis Oikonomidis
Hrvoje Jenkac
Christian Kuhn
Frank Schreckenbach29TUA
(Germany)RWTH of AachenHeinrich Meyr
Rainer Leupers
Gerd Ascheid
Tim Kogel
Peter Schulz-Rittich
Andreas Senst
Volker Simon
Oliver WahlenAnupam Chattopadhyay
Niels Hadaschik
Manuel Hohenauer
Oliver Schliebusch
Lars Schmitt
Andreas Wieferink30UEN
(Germany)University of Erlangen-NurembergJohannes Huber
Wolfgang Koch
Robert Fischer
Wolfgang Gerstacker
Lutz LampeChristoph Windpassinger
Patrick Nickel
Christof Jonietz
Clemens Stierstorfer31DLR
(Germany)German Aerospace Center - DLRStefan Kaiser
Armin Dammann
Ronald Raulefs
Stephan Sand
Erik Haas32IMST
(Germany)IMST GmbHBirgit Kull
Juergen Kunisch Jac Romme33Vodafone
(Germany)VodafoneValerio Zingarelli
Marc Levante
Subrata Re
Mauro Costa34FTW
(Austria)Vienna Telecommunications Research CentreRalf R. Müller
Christoph Mecklenbräuker
Mérouane Debbah
Jossy Sayir
Tomas Nordström
Steffen Trautmann
Rickard Nilsson
Laura Cottatellucci
Thomas ZemenHelmut Hofstetter
Gottfried Lechner
Joachim Wehinger
Georg Tauböck
Harald Kunczier35Budapest
(Hungary)Budapest UniversityLaszlo Pap
Sandor Imre
Peter Fazekas
Gabor JeneyEszter Kail
Mate Szalay36PUT
(Poland)
Poznan University of TechnologyKrzysztof Wesolowski
Hanna Bogucka
Rafal Krenz
Piotr Tyczka.
Janusz PochmaraDobrochna Nadolna
Zbigniew Dlugaszewski
Adrian Langowski
Adam Piatyszek
Lukasz Krzymien37GU
(Belgium)Ghent University.Mark Moeneclaey
Heidi Steendam
Mamoun Guenach
Frederik Vanhaverbeke
Ingrid Moerman
Pim Van HeuvenHenk Wymeersch
Nele Noels Bram
Van Cauwenberge
Tom Van Leeuwen38UCL
(Belgium)Université Catholique de LouvainLuc Vandendorpe
D. Vanhoenacker-Janvier
J. Louveaux
C. Oestges B. Clerckx
A. Dejonghe
C. Herzet
V. Ramon
X. Wautelet
D. Zuyderhoff 39IMEC
(Belgium)IMECFrederik Petré
Claude Desset
Wolfgang Eberle
Liesbet Van der Perre
John Compiet
Wim Diels
Jan Craninckx
Bart Masschelein
Adrian Chirila-Rus
Vincent RyckaertBruno Bougard
Fei Tang
Mingxu Liu
Sofie Pollin40ESA
(The Netherlands)European Space AgencyRiccardo De Gaudenzi
Maryan Vazquez-Castro
Alberto Ginesi
Oscar Del Rio-Herrero
Xavier Maufroid41AU
(Denmark)Aalborg UniversityBernard H. Fleury
Søren Holdt Jensen
Søren Vang Andersen
Fredrik Nordén
Uwe Hartmann
Per Ruback
Kjeld Hermansen
Alexander Kocian Joachim Dahl
Christoffer Rødbro
Mads G. Christensen
Xuefeng Yin
Karsten V. Sørensen
Chunjian Li42Chalmers
(Sweden)Chalmers University of TechnologyArne Svensson
Erik G. Ström
Tony Ottosson
Erik Agrell
Thomas ErikssonAli Behravan
Johan Lassing
Fredrik Malmsten
Florent Munier
Krister Norlund
Anders Persson
Wei Wang
Matts-Ola Wessman
Kia Wiklundh
Pei Xiao
Hongxia Zhao43KU
(Sweden)Karlstad UniversityAnna Brunstrom
Simone Fischer-Hübner
Johan Garcia
Stefan LindskogStefan Alfredsson
Hannes Persson
Annika Wennström44UU
(Sweden)Uppsala UniversityAnders Ahlén
Mikael Sternad
Anders Rydberg
Lars Lindbom
Catharina Carlemalm Mathias Johansson
Jonas Rutström
Daniel Aronsson
Erik Björnemo
Erik Öjefors
Peter Lindberg 45LU
(Sweden)Lund UniversityJohn Anderson
Rolf Johannesson
Ove Edfors
Ben Smeets
Viktor Öwall
Stefan Höst
Andreas Molisch
Fredrik TufvessonAndre Stranne
Fredrik Floren
Peter Almers
Gunnar Eriksson
Fredrik Rusek
Maja Loncar
Håkan Englund
Mattias Kamuf46ERICSSON
(Sweden)EricssonErik Dahlman
David Astely
Jonas Medbo47UoO
(Finland)University of OuluSavo Glisic
Kaveh PahlavanUlrico Celentano
Pekka Pirinnen
Juha-Pekka Mäkelä48NTNU
(Norway)Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyGeir E. Øien
Tor A. Ramstad
Nils Holte
Lars Lundheim
Kjell J. HoleBengt Holter
Greg H. Håkonsen
Duc Van Duong
Lin Gang
Fredrik Hekland
Anna Na Kim
Ola Jetlund 49UoB
(Norway)University of BergenØyvind Ytrehus
Tor Helleseth
Torleiv Kløve
Matthew G. Parker
Hans Georg Schaathun
Eirik Rosnes Pål Ellingsen
Vebjørn Moen50NERA
(Norway)Nera ResearchPål Orten
Terje Røste
Alv Aarskog
Bjarne Risløw
Joar Tanem
Øystein Weum
Helge Coward51UoSo
(UK)University of SouthamptonLajos Hanzo
Sheng Chen
Jeff Reeve
Stephan Weiss
Lie-Liang Yang
S.X. Ng
B-L. Yeap
J. StefanovA.K. Samingan
N.N Ahmad
H. Mohammed
H. Dietl
V. Bale
W. Liu
J.Y. Chung
J. Wang
J. Akhtman
Y. Ahmad
M. Jiang
J. Ng
W. Hua
H. Bin
F. Guo
S. Ni
X. Liang52UoSu
(UK)University of SurreyAhmet Kondoz
Nigel Gilbert
Peter Sweeney
Abdul Sadka
Lynne Hamill
Stewart Worrall
Stephane Villette
Safak Dogan
Nilantha Katugampala
Khaldoon Al-Naimi
Xiyu Shi
Amparo Lasen
Alex Taylor
Jane VincentSertac Eminsoy
Mingyou Hu
Chandrika Kodikara
Qinglin Luo
Chee Hock Liew53UoE
(UK) University of EdinburghSteve McLaughlin
Bernard Mulgrew
Peter Grant
John Hannah
David Cruickshank
David Laurenson
John Thompson54CRLL
(UK)Central Research Labs Ltd.Brett Harker
Nigel Couch

B2. Relevance to the objectives of the IST priority
B2.1 Introduction
The Information Society Technologies (IST) 2003-2004 Programme issued by the European Commission promotes and disseminates the benefits of the “Information Revolution” to the societies of the European Union. The NEWCOM proposal aims at creating a European network which links in a cooperative and productive way a large number of leading research groups in the field of Wireless Multimedia Communications, this being a frontier research area of the Priority Thematic Area of Information Society Technologies (IST). It has been prepared under a pivotal spirit of research integration and thus reflects, thematically and structurally, the increasing convergence of information and communications technologies worldwide. Its main objective is the acceleration of development of the relevant technologies and the empowerment of its members towards that goal, in a way that ensures the fulfillment of the goals of the individuals, institutions and enterprises involved.
B2.2 Scientific Relevance
To be scientifically relevant, one has to be scientifically excellent. The list of members of NEWCOM demonstrates that the network has paid due attention to merging and balancing research excellence and critical mass in several areas of vital importance in wireless communications. As a few, non-exhaustive examples, we can cite some fields of excellence of the groups involved in NEWCOM:
Channel (as well as source-channel) coding, with particular reference to turbo-like codes and iterative decoding,
Receiver design, multi-user detection MIMO systems and applications of information theory to wireless communications systems,
Outdoor and indoor channel measurements and modelling,
Mobility management and topology control of mobile ad-hoc networks,
Network and transport protocols,
Receiver synchronisation and adaptive equalization,
Satellite communications.
Design, modelling and experimental characterization of RF and microwave active devices and subsystems,
Wireless networking (including ad-hoc networks) and wireless internet access,
Ultra-wide band communication systems.
The above list demonstrates that, at least thematically speaking, NEWCOM covers most of today’s “hot” scientific topics in this broad research area and, in addition (as explained further below) it approaches its scientific goals with the imperatives of coherence, harmonisation, and research integration in mind.
B2.3 Technical Relevance
To achieve its broad objectives and scientific goals, NEWCOM has translated them into concrete technical plans and action avenues. To this extent, the NEWCOM research activities are divided into disciplinary and transversal (multidisciplinary) activities. The former (e.g., channel coding) refer to homogeneous research subjects in which some NoE partners are known to excel, and are undertaken inside NEWCOM Departments. The focus here is generally medium- to long-term research, and the efforts of the network are aimed at reinforcing local excellence, as well as at boosting the collaboration between partners doing similar and/or strictly related research work through tools yielding the added value of integration.
Transversal research activities coordinate groups operating in different basic disciplines towards a common objective, the NEWCOM Projects. As an example, research results and activities on reception algorithms and low-power VLSI architectures could be encouraged to contribute towards system-on-chip design incorporating these features. Within the NoE, there are already examples of local centres on wireless communication (CERCOM at Politecnico di Torino, Vienna Telecommunications research Center, Telecommunications Laboratory of University of Oulu, Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia in Barcelona, etc.) which have been established with the goal of promoting multidisciplinary skills toward common research objectives, and these will be used as examples to be emulated within this NoE on a different scale. In fact, we envision the NoE as an effective “supra-structure” that acts as a coordinating umbrella over these local centers.
The disciplinary and transversal activities correspond to the basic concepts of the IST Strategic Objective “Mobile and Wireless Systems Beyond 3G”. The quest for excellence is pursued via establishing Departments which individually work on topics such as the analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing, propagation channel measurements, modeling of RF architectures, design and implementation of base-band architectures, source coding and reliable delivery of multimedia content, etc. They all work towards the characterisation of a generalised access network, including novel air interfaces based on common and flexible infrastructure, supporting mobility and scalability. Additionally, other Departments focus on protocols, architectures and traffic modelling for (reconfigurable/adaptive) wireless networks and mobility, QoS, security and resource management, etc. These aim at studying advanced resource management techniques for the generalized access network, leading to efficient and dynamic spectrum allocation that will also result in reduced electromagnetic radiation. Their work will also result in proposing architectures that enable reconfigurability at all layers.
NEWCOM’s research activities are matched to the aforementioned scientific excellence, experience and expertise of the partners. For each research subject the network includes several active groups, which indicates on the one hand how the network members will benefit from integration, and, on the other hand, the cumulative impulse that European research in those crucial fields will receive from establishing this network. The combination of the homogeneous and transversal activities will result in the establishment of integrated solutions and harmonized technologies that will enable the accelerated development of the targeted research subject. This, in turn, will eventually translate to full, seamless and nomadic-user access to new classes of feature-rich applications as well as new classes of person-to-person, device-to-device and device-to-person applications. The metrics of success of such a technological endeavour provide the “lamp-posts” for delineating the trajectory of this NoE, while at the same time permitting the assessment of the degree of harmonisation with the ambitious technological imperatives of the Lisbon 2000 declaration. According to it ‘the vision of “ambient intelligence” places the user, the individual, at the centre of future developments for an inclusive knowledge-based society for all and the research effort will therefore reinforce and complement the Europe 2005 objectives and look beyond them to the 2010 goals of the Union of bringing IST applications and services to everyone, every home, every school and to all businesses’. Put simply, this NoE harbours the ambition of playing a major contributing role to this noble EU vision.
B2.4 Socio-economic Relevance
To achieve the above policy objective, an ambitious historical experiment like the EU must grope with multiple challenges on the technology front, if its dream of worldwide knowledge leadership is to come true: elimination of wasteful duplication of efforts, coherent integration of objectives, spreading of knowledge to the broader social audience, the firm rooting of a “culture of excellence” within the larger community (a sine-qua-non tool in the long-term vision of cultural virtue), openness and expansion of the inclusive multi-cultural boundaries, and the like. In this quest, the envisioned NoEs in general offer valuable service, and NEWCOM also adheres to these principles.
The main objectives of the NEWCOM project, namely integration, original research, education and training, dissemination and business exploitation of results, will ensure European leadership in the generic and applied technologies at the heart of the knowledge economy, within which wireless multimedia applications and services are clearly positioned as major agents. They will increase innovation and competitiveness in European businesses and industry and thus provide ever-expanding benefits for all European societies, professionals and private citizens alike. Good-quality and easily accessible information and knowledge have always been the hallmarks of advanced societies, a trend that can only be expected to intensify in the near future; NEWCOM can be viewed as a tool at the heart of such a societal objective.
Integration will be the main common goal and ingredient of all NEWCOM activities, aiming at obtaining a structuring and harmonising effect on European research in the field of wireless multimedia communications. It will be exerted within all of the aforementioned homogeneous and multidisciplinary fields.
The network will promote the exchange of graduate students among members. PhD students, depending on their thesis subject, will have the opportunity to attend courses taught by widely recognised leaders in their field. A European Doctoral Program in Multimedia Wireless Communications will be prepared, consisting of a set of courses designed, prepared, and offered in the main subjects of the network by participating universities, avoiding duplications and gaps. Additionally, the network will offer visiting post-doctoral opportunities for training in a coordinated way.
An important education/training activity will be developed by the network and directed towards industry. Continuing education programs in all fields of wireless multimedia communications will be prepared and offered by NoE members. As a result of the integration, the network will generate research papers jointly co-authored by researchers of different groups. International workshops and/or conferences on particularly hot topics will be organised, with the aim of attracting world research leaders. NEWCOM’s most promising and innovative research results will be patented (joint patenting will be promoted), and network members will be encouraged to exploit them also through new start-up companies. Additionally, NoE industrial members will be involved in the NoE Scientific Committee, and thus be able to participate in the evolution of network strategy.
To conclude, the focus of NEWCOM is on future generation Wireless Multimedia Communication systems in which computers, networks and individuals will be integrated into the everyday environment, rendering accessible a multitude of services and applications through easy-to-use human interfaces. This vision places the user, the individual, at the centre of future developments for an inclusive knowledge based society for all.
This research effort will therefore reinforce and complement the objectives of the IST priority and will serve the goals of the European Union of bringing IST applications and services to everyone, every home, every school and to all businesses.

B3. POTENTIAL IMPACT
The merit of any proposed NoE, including NEWCOM, will eventually be judged by the impact that it will generate on the research field of interest, as well as on the surrounding intellectual, social and business space of the EU and the world at large. The one particular way of impacting the economic milieu of the continent, namely contribution to the standardization efforts in wireless communications systems, is expanded in detail in Section B3.1 below. Following that, we address and discuss in greater detail the other aspects of demonstrable impact brought about by the genesis of this NoE.
B3.1 NEWCOM’s potential contributions to standardization efforts
A quick glimpse of history is always helpful in putting things into perspective. During the early ‘80s, Europe regained its global dominance in wireless communications, despite the cutting-edge technological developments at the Bell Laboratories of the USA during the preceding timeframe. The first cellular radio system in Europe was installed in Scandinavia in 1981 and it served initially only a few thousand subscribers, using analogue frequency modulation. While traveling from Scandinavia to Sicily by car, one could easily encounter 4 to 5 incompatible mobile radio systems. However, in 1982, CEPT (Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunication), the main governing body of the European PTT’s, created the Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM) Committee and tasked it with specifying a cellular pan-European public mobile communication system to operate in the 900 MHz band. The first important decision made by the pan-European GSM Committee was the selection of a digital system. By the middle ‘80’s, nine competing proposals were received, and GSM organised a trial in Paris to identify the best-performing one.
It should be mentioned that one of the competing systems was in fact a code-division multiple access (CDMA) system, with many elements realized much later in the UMTS standard. These major technical advances in digital mobile communications were substantially ahead of the corresponding studies conducted in the USA and Japan. This was facilitated by the concerted efforts of the European wireless communications community, wherein the candidate systems were conceived in competition, yet following the Paris trials the best elements of the various systems were fused together in one. This excellent exercise in cooperation resulted in a system capable of outperforming all original candidate systems. The global impact of GSM has been phenomenal, since it has been introduced in some 150 countries – unmatched by any competitor system. During the standardisation process of GSM, a good cooperation spirit developed among European engineers and researchers, thus forming a de facto network of excellence; NEWCOM aspires to continue this noble tradition into the foreseeable future, exactly in this same paradigm of EU-based success.
In the US, the first digital pan-American mobile radio system, IS-54, was standardised during the late ‘80s. Interestingly, the philosophy of this system was different in many of its design choices from those of GSM. This system was shortly followed by the first public CDMA system on a global scale, known as IS-95A and its derivatives. However, since the original systems were competitors in the USA, both systems were used only by a fraction of the population and did not support international roaming. In this respect, the harmonized efforts of Europe appeared more successful than the purely competition-based (and, hence, fragmented) American standardisation policies. The Japanese systems were also unable to support international roaming. These trends were in stark contrast to their desire to carve out a large market-share from the global mobile handset and base-station market. The international community has learnt a big lesson from the global success of the pan-European GSM system, hence enormous efforts have been invested into harmonising the national proposals. Unfortunately, the third-generation (3G) standard missed the target of ratifying a single global standard, resulting in the IMT2000 system currently comprised of five disparate standards. An important new phenomenon has been the emergence of strong Chinese and Korean proposals, in addition to the European, Japanese and American proposals. It should be clear that the main obstacle preventing the emergence of a single global standard was essentially IPR-related (and therefore revenue-related), rather than technical. In the mean time, while the third-generation standards are being rolled out in various parts of the globe, the wireless communications community has embarked on innovating in the field of the next (fourth) generation mobile systems, thus pointing to an ever-lasting process of improvement, competition and ingenuity in this very lucrative market. Today, 3G system trials have been completed in Europe, but the commercial roll-out of the systems has been slow to materialize. By contrast, in Japan and the USA there is already a substantial mass of CDMA2000 3G users. In the 3GPP and 3GPP2 standardisation bodies, relevant standardisation work continues, according to the philosophy of continuous evolution from the current 3G standards.
We should point out that many of the topics researched by NEWCOM members have already found their way into the working programme of 3GPP and 3GPP2. A few examples are turbo channel codecs, adaptive modulation, space-time codecs, etc. Based on this track record, research of NEWCOM is reasonably expected to evolve further and instantiate itself in further successful contributions to the standards process. Specifically, the next step will be to feed the research results to the industrial partners of NEWCOM, results produced not only from the NEWCOM collaboration but also from other IST projects. Furthermore, we envision and plan participation in international fora that shape the future of wireless systems, such as the 4Gmobile Forum, the Cluster on Systems beyond 3G, The Wireless World Research Forum, the Software Defined Radio Forum, etc.
B3.2 Europe's need for cohesion and coordination
As argued previously, NEWCOM can draw aspiration from the past success of the GSM experience and try to contribute to a continuation of this success. The landscape, however, has changed dramatically in the past 20 years: research has become truly globalised and immensely competitive; the role of elaborate and industrially relevant academic research has increased manifold; industry and academia have come together and cooperate much closer than before; many newly industrialized nations and global business consortia of vast financial power are betting on the “telecommunications tsunami” to lift national, societal and individual fortunes; information technology is on an ever increasing slope in terms of achievement and deployment; in other words, the information acceleration predicted by Alvin Toffler in his famous “Future Shock” treatise 30-plus years ago is indeed taking place in front of our very eyes.
On top of the above challenges, there appears recently to be less collaborative research between international academic institutions than between industry and academia. The main reason for this appears to be the lack of funding mechanisms that emphatically promote the intra-academic collaboration, and the idea of a NoE cures exactly that. Academics are usually acutely aware of each other's activities and do make references to related results across the globe in their academic research. Yet, unless researchers of two academic or industrial institutions collaborate, say, within a specific European project, they will have to wait for the usual two-year publication cycle to pass before they can have access to each other's research papers or reports. The same is typically true for patent applications and other research outputs, such as measurement-campaign results, field trials, etc. This long lead-time is fruitless and can be reduced within a NoE such as NEWCOM, by means of all the steps planned for intensifying the collaboration of partners; see Section B4.1 for details.
There exist a few early successful examples of broader international (within Europe) cohesive cooperation from which one can draw inspiration, such as the Nordic Course on Communications Technology, which brought together all Nordic PhD students in the field. Another example of regular joint activities include the Joint Conference on Coding and Communications (JCCC), a one-week workshop between Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Sweden and similar ESA workshops. However, these activities have not yet been formalized in an institutional and continuous form, and some of those can be subsumed in a successful NoE. Thus, NEWCOM intends to be a network of networks, since several partners have been collaborating in various national programs for a number of years. Such networks have had a positive impact on the research and standardisation process in Europe in the past. The lead Europe has enjoyed in mobile communications should and could be continued by further coordinating the existing institutions and sub-networks in a structured way. The results and the cross-fertilisation of NEWCOM can accelerate research in this field, educate students at the Master and PhD levels, spur transfer of knowledge to industry and generally have a deep impact on the standardisation of fourth generation mobile systems and beyond.
B3.3. NEWCOM’s contribution to the strengthening of the European position in wireless communications
Today, the relative strength of various European partners is uneven due to a rather irregular bidding process. As is well known, numerous government studies had been commissioned for estimating the value of mobile communications for the whole economy, and this was the basis for the auctioning of operating licenses in the USA and across Europe. Following the Call for Bids, the bidding process resulted in extremely high spectrum-license prices in some countries of Europe. Other countries enjoyed the benefit of hindsight and learnt from the problems imposed by the bidding process, motivating them to opt for more innovative allocation of the third-generation operating licenses. Overall, spectrum has become an extremely expensive and valuable commodity, and numerous entities have staked their future on the success of 3G and on Wireless Local Area Networks These systems are expected to constitute the enabling technology for the wireless Internet and for the services facilitated by it.
In view of this reality, one key objective of NEWCOM is to contribute towards the innovation required for achieving the ambitious goals of the forthcoming generation of mobile systems, some of which can be summarized as:
providing wireline-like service qualities by mobile networks
attaining substantially improved effective throughput and increased spectral efficiency, especially in the light of the prices and expenditures mentioned above
achieving the seamless interconnection of existing networks into a web of networks
combining the wireless network with the location features, i.e., the upcoming European Galileo System.
Many of the NEWCOM partners have been involved in numerous consecutive EU-wide RACE, ACTS and IST projects, as well as nationally funded projects. This allows them to further exploit their industrial and academic networks and augment their impact on the community, in particular in the various standardisation processes. The expected impact is not just one of exploiting past individual research experience and energy, connections and networks, but in bringing about an amplification effect and collective strength for the purpose of leveraging valuable past investments and expenditures.
B3.4 Experience of NEWCOM partners in collaborative programmes
As mentioned above, NEWCOM is intended to be a network of networks, since several national partners have been collaborating within various national programmes for a number of years, for example in Italy, France, Germany, and the UK, as detailed below.
In Italy the national research programmes have been historically supported by the National Research Council (CNR, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) and the Italian Ministry of Research and University (MIUR). Recently, several important objectives concerning nationwide cooperation have been achieved within the framework of various projects under the auspices of the National Operative Programme (PON) and the Fondo Incentivazione Ricerca di Base (FIRB) Programme (incidentally, the coordinator of NEWCOM proposal is the principal investigator of the largest funded FIRB Programme on Reconfigurable Platforms for Multimedia Wireless Communication). It should be noted, however, that the paucity of funding has a negative effect on these programmes and funds are often focused on needy geographic areas. Hence, incorporating these national efforts in a European cooperative framework would have a value both for the above projects and for the trans-national network.
In France, the Reseau National de Recherche en Telecommunication (RNRT) supports the scientific collaboration of a select group of universities referred to as “grandes ecoles” and industry. The RNRT supports research into topics such as the future of the Internet, next-generation multimedia mobile phones and satellite clusters. Since 1999, a total of 126 national projects have been funded, receiving about 100 million Euro in funding.
In Germany, there are the Programmes of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), especially the „Sonderforschungsbereiche“ where several Universities cooperate and hold annual two-day workshops on jointly funded subjects. An example can be found at http://www.lkn.ei.tum.de/AKOM/. Similar funding programmes are undertaken by the German Ministry of Research, where funding goes mainly to industry, and from there is often relayed to Universities. An example of this is the so-called MiniWatt Programme; see http://www.dlr.de/PT-DLR/kt/miniwatt.html.
In the UK, there are both pure academic and mixed academia-industry consortia. For example, all the UK partners of NEWCOM are members of the Virtual Centre of Excellence in Mobile Communications known as VCE. Whilst in the pre-VCE era these academic research teams had only occasional contacts during PhD examinations, External Examiner appointments and conferences for example, they now benefit from a vigorous collaboration. This assumes numerous forms, such as three-monthly Steering Group Meetings, complemented by regular in depth technical meetings. Typically an experienced academic coordinates a specific working area, which may have PhD students from several academic research teams. Hence, the various dissemination and joint supervision regimes proposed by NEWCOM have essentially been tested at a national level and appear to work effectively.
Some partners are also members of a trans-Atlantic collaborative programme referred to as the Worldwide University Network (WUN), which was also set up with the aim of sharing resources and workloads as well as research findings.
These national programmes have been both cost-effective and successful, regardless of the country concerned. They significantly shortened the delay encountered in the dissemination of research results, tested the joint supervision type ideas and spurred on innovation at an accelerated pace. Since NEWCOM is planning to make most of the results available as widely as possible, it will have a high impact also beyond the NoE partners, in particular in industry. This is because the results will be tested internally by other NEWCOM partner members (not to mention the prestigious Advisory Board); therefore, it is anticipated that NEWCOM will become a powerful and influential voice in the wireless communications research community.
In addition to the conventional report-based and research paper oriented dissemination avenues, NEWCOM will disseminate the jointly acquired research information with the aid of industrial and academic training courses. Several of the NEWCOM academics already offer highly-acclaimed training courses at conferences and workshops, and there is a great body of textbooks as well as research monographs authored by NEWCOM academics, which constitute the widest possible means of disseminating their knowledge and results. A number of NEWCOM researchers have also provided www-based courses (see, for example, http://professional.webcampus.stevens-tech.edu/) and this method may also be used for intensifying the dissemination activities of NEWCOM.
By pooling resources and expertise, these activities will improve the quality of training that otherwise would be provided by any of the NEWCOM partner members in isolation for their PhD students. The cross-fertilisation of ideas across both the NEWCOM Universities and other European Universities will increase the productivity of European academia as a whole. Furthermore, industry will have access to a significantly better-trained pool of PhD graduates than otherwise could be expected.
B3.5 Summary and conclusions
NEWCOM will augment the already available European competencies by enhancing the existing educational and research capabilities, with the aim of pooling resources and sharing expertise as well as results. As detailed above, NEWCOM intends to be a network of networks, which will interlace the ongoing research programs in the different countries. This will improve the quality of PhD training right across Europe, providing industry with the best-possible trained researchers. This will increase the grade of innovation across the wireless communications industry.
In summarising the lessons of history, following the ratification of the GSM standard, research has become widely globalised. This manifested itself amply during the standardisation process of 3G systems. Based on the experience gleaned from the GSM standardisation, Europe-wide concerted efforts are necessary in order to have a major influence and impact on global standardisation, research, product development, job- and wealth-creation, etc. These objectives can be facilitated by intensive Europe-wide dissemination and the collaborative means proposed by NEWCOM.

B4. Degree of Integration and the joint programme of activities
In this section we describe the activities that will be undertaken by NEWCOM partners related to integration, research, spreading of excellence, and management. If we were to compare the process of setting up a NoE to the preparation of a dish, the integration activities would be the seasoning (salt, butter, spices) and saucepan, the spreading of excellence the smell, the management the cook and his/her assistants, and, finally, the research would constitute the main dish ingredients. Without the latter, all the rest is useless. For this reason, although we understand that EC funding does not cover directly the research expenses, a great effort has been devoted to the Subsection B4.2, in order to put the research program in the correct perspective, to identify topics in which the cooperation of different partners would be beneficial, and to describe the core of the achievable scientific objectives.
B4.1 Integrating Activities
B4.1.1 Introduction
NEWCOM firmly believes that internal integration activities will play a major role in structuring the European Research Area. Integration activities will represent a sort of backbone of the NoE itself, and will act as the fundamental background to carry out in an optimal way the concurrent actions of research and spreading of excellence.
NEWCOM’s favorite paradigm for the NoE is the concept of a distributed University organised into Departments and Projects, with a continent-wide distribution of excellent people sharing common research (and, to some extent, education) objectives, and pursuing them in a highly integrated fashion. As in any large-scale organisation, the management of NEWCOM will define specific integration actions to ensure that the initial collection of heterogeneous nodes will turn into a structured organisation with well-harmonized activities. These actions can be classified into specific integration activities directed towards the creation of common infrastructures, specific integration activities directed towards research, and specific integration activities directed towards education. It is worth noticing that embedded integration activities are also implicit since the very set up of the concept of Network of Excellence.
B4.1.2 Specific integration activities directed toward common infrastructures
These activities aim at supporting the cooperation between NEWCOM partners and the coordination of NEWCOM scientific and educational activities, by means of common shared infrastructures.
The first activity consists in providing NEWCOM with appropriate communication and computing facilities. This sounds like a given within any NoE dealing with information and communication technologies, but it should be actually viewed as a key issue, regardless of the actual research subject, be it (incidentally) ICT or Egyptology. The successful execution of this activity will allow to move information rather than people, and will call for the setup of suitable audio-visual facilities and support network to allow for frequent, easy to set up, distributed low-cost meetings across NEWCOM locations.
NEWCOM intends in particular to exploit the facilities offered by the Gigabit European Research Network (GEANT) funded by the European Commission, e.g. by implementing a Virtual Private Network (VPN) on it. As shown in Figure 4.1, the National Research Networks (NRN) in the countries hosting NEWCOM partners are already connected to GEANT, and so the interconnection of most NEWCOM nodes via high-speed links through the respective NRNs should be relatively straightforward.
The connection of industrial partners will be obtained by involving the relevant local Internet Service Provider. NEWCOM partners will define with the GEANT management the appropriate services and the application SW tools to be used within the NoE activities. The choice will take into account the equipment and software already available at the different locations as far as video communication and cooperative working tools are required. Also support to teaching activity will be provided, e.g., using the ISABEL application extensively used during global coverage events organised by the ACTS project NICE from 1997 to 1999.
Related to this aspect is also the set-up of a computing grid among those nodes of the NoE which pursue common research themes, in order to provide NEWCOM with adequate computing power. As an example, cross-layer simulations are in fact particularly demanding from a computational standpoint, and so the integration of computing facilities will be a further action to be pursued. The set-up of a permanent high-speed subnet within GEANT is clearly a key empowering factor in sharing a common SW platform and in establishing a NEWCOM computing grid to better exploit the existing resources via a cost-effective approach.


 Fig. 4.1. The GEANT Network
The second activity will be the design, implementation and management of a NEWCOM website. This infrastructure will mainly serve as a common repository of various types of information to be exchanged within the network: common databases, papers, reports, posting of event scheduling, and so on. Moreover, it will also be used as an interface towards the scientific community, which, by means of proper public web pages, will be kept updated with NEWCOM activities, open visiting positions, public domain papers and conference presentation, etc.
B4.1.3 Specific integration activities directed towards research
These activities aim at facilitating the scientific cooperation between NEWCOM partners. This challenging goal, which represents the very objective of the NoE, can be met only with significant effort, directed towards the set up of common research procedures and instruments, as well as the promotion of researcher mobility and the scheduling of periodic internal meetings and reviews.
Research in the field of wireless communication calls for extensive SW/HW simulations at different layers in the OSI stack protocols to test the performance and measure the complexity of transmission algorithms, protocols, access techniques, physical channel models, etc. The third integration activity will be directed towards the design and implementation of a set of common tools to perform joint experiments, leading to the development of a shared software/hardware (SW/HW) platform. This will avoid software duplication, and permit the code reusability amongst the network partnership. In more detail, this activity will encompass the definition of methodologies and libraries for a shared SW environment to be used for high level simulations and IP validation/characterization. A System Simulation Tool, built around a baseline skeleton of key modules and agreed interfaces, will be able to accommodate innovative algorithms developed by NEWCOM Departments and Projects and to test them on a common system framework.
Essential parts of the SW platform will be the collection of modules implementing channel models defined in existing and forthcoming wireless standards specifications, and newly devised models required to test system features such as, for example, space-time codes and MIMO configurations. SW implementation of mobility models to form a common SW test bed will also be pursued. Particular attention will be devoted to the issue of cross-layer simulations. The current trend of wireless systems design emphasises in fact joint cross-layer optimisation of transmission, access, and resource control techniques, which requires cross-layer verification techniques, to be performed in primis by simulation.
The definition and implementation of a SW platform will be coordinated with the outcomes of several Departments/Projects, ending up with the release of appropriate software tools, to be integrated into the SW platform. The idea is to leave ample freedom in the choice of the SW for the development of models and algorithms in the research phase. However, once a model/algorithm has reached a sufficient maturity, its SW will be matched to the agreed interfaces defined in this integration activity. Similar arguments apply to the activity dealing with the definition, design, and implementation of a HW platform for fast HW prototyping of the NEWCOM research outcomes in terms of performance/complexity trade-offs. It is worth mentioning that HW test beds already exist in some NEWCOM sites. Once again, the main task will be that of coordinating and enriching them with novel features. The presence of high-speed communication links will enhance the possibility of remote control of the HW platform via suited programming (for instance, through LabView applications). At least for a subset of the features, the platform will be controlled and monitored by remote PCs allowing all NEWCOM nodes to access a facility without the need of in-situ physical presence.
Notwithstanding the importance of virtual scientific communities, sharing common tools and exploiting audio-visual infrastructures, the integration of research cannot be carried out without fostering the mobility of researchers within the network. This is something that is already happening among some NEWCOM nodes due to previous research links; the intent of NEWCOM is to make it systematic and possibly permanent. The fourth integration activity will then be the coordination and management of the researcher and PhD student mobility. NEWCOM Departments and Projects will offer to researchers and PhD students visiting opportunities in the participating partners locations. The visits will be based on medium-long term programs touching several partner locations with the aim of training researchers in a particular field by identifying excellence sites within the network Departments, and having them offering well-defined and coordinated works. The physical exchange of researchers for several months will be encouraged and is a step towards better mutual understanding of still varying European research cultures. The integration outcomes of these NEWCOM Training Pilgrimages will be twofold: on one hand, they will help establishing a common scientific background (made of notations, terminology, analytical tools, etc.) among the various research groups, on the other they will generate results and scientific disseminations with multiple authors from different countries, in a virtuous circle devoid of scientific envy.
As detailed in B 4.3 about the actions for spreading excellence, NEWCOM also intends to encourage and coordinate the partners to profit of the opportunity of the Marie Curie Program in order to facilitate the mobility and the researcher pilgrimages and the knowledge fertilization.
A fifth activity devoted to the achievement of a high level of scientific coordination will be the organization of periodic (not necessarily plenary) internal workshops and meetings. Such events will serve as tools to increase internal communications and periodically verify and evaluate integration; they will represent a unique opportunity to directly exchange ideas and to set up collaborations within scientifically homogeneous areas, as well as to put the basis for cross-fertilization amongst complementary research groups. Last but not least, a sixth activity will be devoted to promote the policy of publishing scientific results in the major international conferences and journals, as well as a healthy and friendly competition amongst the NEWCOM participants. This will be accomplished through formal recognition by the Scientific Committee and Advisory Board of the best paper published by NEWCOM researchers (Newcom Best Paper Award).
B4.1.4 Specific integration activities directed toward teaching and learning.
NEWCOM views as a fundamental integration action the coordination of the different national post-graduate education programs within the NoE. To this end, various levels of integration could be pursued, ranging from simple, Web-based exchange of teaching material, to the ambitious creation of a European Doctoral Program. Therefore, the seventh integration activity, ``Integration of teaching and learning”, is manifold. It encompasses a permanent program for systematically broadcasting distinguished speakers lectures and seminars to all the interested nodes of the network, making use of the NEWCOM communications facilities. This will offer the opportunity to attend high-level seminars by a relatively large group of people without incurring into excessive travel expenses. In the long run, we can also envisage a systematic use of such facilities to broadcast interesting presentations at any level (down to PhD students) to other interested nodes. The activity will also be devoted to the organization of summer/winter doctoral schools by setting up a program of courses and tutoring activities for NEWCOM PhD students. No doubt, the most challenging objective consists in the definition of a European Doctoral Program in Multimedia Wireless Communications. The basic idea is that PhD students will still receive their degrees from their home University according to the local laws, but they will have access to the NEWCOM educational system; this will make possible a significant improvement in the overall learning opportunities. In a first phase, this will materialize into a set of courses designed, prepared, and offered in the main subjects of the network by member universities, avoiding duplications and gaps. These courses will be in part diffused to all NEWCOM PhD students in an interactive way through the high-speed NEWCOM network. To cover important subjects that may lie outside NEWCOM excellence domains, internationally renowned researchers will be invited to teach a course on his/her field. Typically such a course will last 2 weeks, the morning being filled with presentations of top NEWCOM and international experts, the afternoon being dedicated to Q&A sessions and student presentations. Attending such schools will have for European students the effect of setting an early spirit for cooperative research that may be currently missing in some national educational programs. The NoE will be thus for them the natural means of implementing the cooperative, trans-national research that they will have learned to view as indispensable in their formative years. They will make friends and will face their competitors all over Europe.
It is worth noticing that, although being mainly conceived to foster internal cooperation, the mentioned educational activities may also be extended to external participants, subject to the approval of specific agreements.
B4.1.5 Embedded integration activities
The embedded, implicit integration activities are made evident by Section B4.2, by the list of joint research activities (Appendix I) and by the first 18 months program (Section B8) and related work package description (Appendix II). The preparation of the research program for NEWCOM Departments and Projects in the last two months is itself a vivid proof that integration has already positively started. All activities and work packages list numerous NEWCOM participating partners, all of which have highly contributed to the preparation of the research program. Although not being made explicit as a specific integrating activity, this fact lies at the very core of NEWCOM existence, and will be crucial to determine its success.


B.4.2 Program for Jointly Executed Research Activities

The NEWCOM research activities are divided into disciplinary and multidisciplinary activities, which we refer to as NEWCOM Departments and NEWCOM Projects, respectively. Each NEWCOM Department is dedicated to a homogenous research subject in the field of wireless multimedia communication in which NEWCOM partners have already excelled. NEWCOM Projects reflect the system perspective of today’s communication problems and are intended to bring together disciplinary work contributing to a multidisciplinary research goal. We can thus visualise NEWCOM research activities in a matrix structure with Departments on the columns and Projects on the rows.

The NEWCOM Departments are:
Analysis and Design of Algorithms for Signal Processing at Large in Wireless Systems
MIMO Radio Channel Modelling for Design Optimisation and Performance Assessment of Next Generation Communication Systems
Design, Modeling and Experimental Characterisation of RF and Microwave Devices and Subsystems
Analysis, Design and Implementation of Digital Architectures and Circuits
Source Coding and Reliable Delivery of Multimedia Contents
Protocols and Architectures, and Traffic Modeling for (Reconfigurable/ Adaptive) Wireless Networks
QoS Provision in Wireless Networks: Mobility, Security and Radio Resource Management

The NEWCOM Projects are:
Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
Ultra-wide Band Communication Systems
Functional Design Aspects of Future Generation Wireless Systems
Reconfigurable Radio for Interoperable Transceivers
Cross Layer Optimisation.
Shared Hardware/Software Test Bed for Future Wireless Systems to Test Different Solutions and Algorithms

The ensemble of NEWCOM Departments represents core research areas involved in the development of future wireless communication systems. Our efforts in NEWCOM Departments will be aimed at coordinated medium-to-long term research overcoming the parallel working of research groups of today. From this we expect the manifestation of local excellence and the bearing of significant and long-standing contributions, which finally will result in recognised leaderships in these research areas. The collection of NEWCOM Projects images our endeavour to link the work of essentially disciplinary research groups in a cooperative way. These NEWCOM Projects do per se work as integrating activities by incorporating all disciplinary NEWCOM Departments.

In the following, we describe in detail the subject, the scope, and the added value of integration of the NEWCOM Departments and the NEWCOM Projects. The participation of the NEWCOM members in the joint programme of activities is summarised in the “NOE list of activities, Appendix I” .
The numbering in the subsections starts with the letter “D” to denote Departments, and “P” to denote Projects.
Description of Departments
Department 1: Analysis and Design of Algorithms for Signal Processing at Large in Wireless Systems
D1.1 Introduction
In the past decade we have witnessed major advances in reliable communications, having a direct impact on the volume andvolume and quality of services offered in all wireless systems. Key to these advances are the signal processing subsystems on which wireless communications are built. Despite notable recent gains in coding theory, multi-access techniques, and processing efficiency, the ever increasing demand for higher data rates pushes current generation designs to their practical limits. To ensure that future systems will not be confined to permanent saturation, major coordinated research efforts into the fundamental capabilities and limitations of wireless systems must be pursued, addressing multifaceted technical issues such as information theoretic capacity limits in time-varying multi-user channels, short packet code design for two-way communications, optimal resource allocation strategies under quality of service constraints, and increased mobility requirements, to name just a few. Although the basic signal processing techniques exploited in wireless systems have become increasingly specialised and mature over the past five decades, recent trends show that the joint optimisation of the various signal processing subsystems is a necessary ingredient in solutions that are to meet future demands in wireless communications. This, in turn, requires the multidisciplinary talents and complementary expertise that NEWCOM assembles.
D1.2 Research activities
1 Coding and Signal Design for Future Wireless Broadband Systems
Shannon's discovery that information can be efficiently coded into ”robust” electrical signals lies at the very heart of communication theory []. With the advent of turbo decoding and the rediscovery of low-density parity check codes [,], the promise of reliable communication close to the theoretical Shannon limit has finally become a practical reality, at least for the classical point-to-point additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.
Nevertheless, coding and modulation are far from becoming exhausted fields. On the one hand, even for the point-to-point AWGN channel a number of important issues still need to be addressed. For example, while many communication systems operate with fairly short packets, the full power of turbo codes and low-density parity-cgeck (LDPC) codes only sets in at medium-long block lengths; for short packets, there appears to be room for substantial improvements. A number of challenging problems arise (or persist) also in connection with specific channels and/or modulation schemes. For example, in multicarrier systems, the problem of controlling the ratio between the peak signal power and the average signal power is still with us. As another example, the design of efficient combined coding and modulation schemes for fading channels is still a challenge.
On the other hand, time now seems ripe for coding to tackle broader issues. For example, it is customary for communication systems to insert pilot tones and/or some known symbols into the transmitted data stream in order to facilitate tasks like channel estimation and synchronisation. But this is coding as every controlled introduction of redundancy is coding! The combined design of traditional coding/modulation and, e.g., pilot tones holds much promise for boosting the overall throughput of wireless links. Specific challenges also arise in multiantenna systems, both in point-to-point and in network applications.
All this “coding at large” is intimately linked with suitable decoding algorithms. The well-known principle of iterative (turbo) decoding is naturally extended to joint iterative synchronisation, channel estimation, equalisation, and decoding. However, the design space of applicable iterative algorithms is huge, and its exploration has only just begun.
Our research in coding will be aimed at achieving substantial progress in the mentioned areas, specifically
coding and decoding for short block lengths,
coding for multicarrier, in particular, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems,
coding and modulation for MIMO systems,
adaptive coding and modulation schemes for time-varying channels,
robust multiuser codes,
exploration of joint iterative decoding, channel estimation, synchronisation, etc.,
principles and methods for the “global” signal design for such iterative receivers,
finding the information theoretic performance limits of such global signal designs for realistic channel models,
joint source-channel coding schemes with low complexity for improved spectral efficiency and robustness towards deteriorating channel conditions.
2. Synchronisation, Channel Estimation, and Equalisation
In wireless communications, the transmission channel introduces time-varying multipath fading to the transmitted signal and hence, an equaliser is needed to recover the transmitted data at the receiver. The appropriate adjustment of the equaliser depends on the transmission channel, which is a priori unknown. Therefore, the receiver contains a channel estimation algorithm to estimate a proper channel parameter set. Channel estimation and prediction are also of great importance if we are to fully exploit the potential channel capacity of time-varying links, using rate-adaptive transmission schemes. Furthermore, an adequate synchronisation of sampling timing and, in wireless systems, of carrier frequency and phase is mandatory.
It is certainly fair to say that the general issues of synchronisation, channel estimation, and equalisation are thoroughly studied and well understood [,,]. However, major advances in other fields of communications in the past decade, namely
the introduction of extremely powerful error correcting codes in combination with iterative (turbo) decoding , and the extension of the “turbo principle” to other functions of the receiver, in particular iterative equalisation, channel estimation, and synchronisation ,
the considerable increase of the capacity within a given bandwidth, by using multiple transmit and receive antennas, yielding a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission channel ,
give rise to new challenges and opportunities in the field of synchronisation, channel estimation, and equalisation.
As a consequence, we consider
the design of sufficiently accurate synchronisation and channel estimation algorithms which allow the receiver to be operated at a particularly low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such that the potential of powerful codes can be fully exploited and
the development of moderate- or low-complexity synchronisation, channel estimation and equalisation units for transmission over MIMO channels, where the number of parameters to be estimated and signals involved increases with the number of channel inputs and outputs
as paramount research items.
To tackle these items, jointly executed research activities under the umbrella of NEWCOM shall be grouped into two categories.
A first group of research activities focuses on the investigation of synchronisation, channel estimation and equalisation for various wireless scenarios, such as single-carrier and multicarrier modulation, single-user and multiuser systems, single-input single-output and MIMO channels, and in rate-adaptive communication systems.
A second group of research activities concerns turbo/iterative techniques. In these activities the aim is to explore the potential receiver performance improvement that results from the interaction between several receiver functions (such as decoding, demodulation, synchronisation, channel estimation, equalisation, interference cancellation), that exchange soft information in an iterative manner. These research activities are not restricted to synchronisation, channel estimation and equalisation, but also linked to decoding/demodulation, multiuser reception, and joint source/channel coding .

3. Iterative Receivers
The success of the turbo decoding algorithm has inspired similar iterative information-exchanging algorithms to jointly optimize receiver subsystems. Although the performance improvements are quite manifest in certain circumstances, misconvergence behavior such as limit cycles, chaos, or numerical singularities are also observed in harsher communication environments.
This activity deals with the analysis and design of iterative receivers, in their aspects of information-theoretic description, tools for convergence analysis, and key parameter estimation.
4. Multiple Access Schemes
Finding optimal multiple access schemes for mobile and wireless systems beyond 3G is very challenging [,,]. Various access levels and radio interfaces that are complementary to each other should be served and their use optimised. Optimality of access methods varies a lot depending on the coverage level (personal, home, cellular, wide area, global). Satellite links, as an example, have much longer propagation delays than terrestrial ones that should be accounted for in the choice of access technique. Different services have quite divergent quality of service, data rate and mobility requirements. Therefore, reconfigurability and adaptability is needed to fulfil these even contradictory requirements in heterogeneous operational environments.
Most of the 2G and 3G air interfaces are based on the use of frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), time-division multiple access (TDMA) and code-division multiple access (CDMA) techniques. These are the core methods to be used as references and building blocks for novel schemes. Some prominent candidates for future radio access networks are based on multicarrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) and OFDM/TDMA techniques that are spectrally efficient and flexible. All forms of available diversity should be exploited. Therefore, space-division multiple access (SDMA) will be an important additional element in the multiple access scheme. Ultra wideband (UWB) systems have been proposed for short-range communications. Relevant multiple access methods for UWB still require a lot of research. Overall, the focus will be on packet-switched (all-IP) services. Hence, the medium access control (MAC) layer packet access should be optimised jointly with the physical layer multiple access (e.g., wireless ad hoc networks).
Our joint research activities will focus on
fair tests and thorough evaluation of potential access methods for specific services and environments under realistic scenarios,
architectural comparisons between multimode, overlay, and common access types of platforms in order to assure global roaming across multiple wireless and mobile networks,
distributed and dynamic channel selection algorithms for ad hoc wireless networks,
with the goal of developing novel access schemes and radio interfaces that overcome the limitations of 3G and fulfil the requirements placed for them.
5. Multiuser Receivers
In communications systems where more than a single user is active at a given time instant, multiuser interference (also known as crosstalk) occurs. Multiuser interference can occur due to imperfections of circuits, e.g. limited stop-band attenuation of filters, non-linearities of amplifiers, etc., due to channel impairments, e.g. frequency-selective fading channels which destroy the orthogonality of signature sequences in CDMA, or due to design. Multiuser interference due to design is not a shortcoming by its pure existence, but allowing for multiuser interference can greatly improve flexibility and reconfigurability of the system, as it lifts the additional constraint incurred by the demand for orthogonal signalling of all users at all times.
Multiuser interference (occurring by whatever reason) limits the reliability of communication unless appropriate countermeasures are taken. Those countermeasures are known as multiuser detection. A state of the art survey can be found in [].
Multiuser detection for digital communications has been found to be a hard problem to solve in an optimal manner. Thus, in practice, suboptimum approaches are tailored to the specific problems set out by the applications. This makes the field of sensible algorithms very wide and gives room for the design of new algorithms whenever new systems are under consideration.
The open and new challenges for multiuser detection (which is about to be become a mature field for synchronised, uncoded and static communication systems) include, but are not limited to,
soft-output multiuser detectors for iterative detection and decoding,
interference countermeasures for MIMO systems,
combined channel estimation and multiuser detection,
power control for iterative multiuser decoding,
multiuser detectors for bursty traffic.
Advances in any of the topics listed above will be beneficial for the other areas of signal processing. They can significantly change the way one wants to design the physical layer air interface. In some cases, e.g. when power control is considered as in [], they can even revert the tasks higher-layer algorithms have to fulfil.
It is the goal to both propose new algorithms and to analyse their performance compared to well-known standard methods used for reference purpose. Note that the existence of a standard reference method does not mean that the problem is solved, in principle. In most cases of practical interest, the reference methods are too complicated for real-time implementation. Due to this fact, multiuser detection has often been excluded from system consideration, e.g. when standardising the UMTS air interface UTRA-FDD. However, application specific methods for multiuser detection proposed later (e.g., []) have shown that the additional complexity required for multiuser detection can be small if it is tailored to the problem in a smart way.
6. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems
The requirements on future wireless communications systems in terms of data rates and quality of service (QoS) are significantly higher than what is offered by current standards. Employing multiple antennas at both the transmit and receive side of a wireless link (MIMO technology) has been recognised as a key enabling technology for meeting these requirements and providing broadband wireless access with significantly enhanced spectral efficiency and QoS.
To date, research in the MIMO area has focused almost exclusively on single-user systems or point-to-point links. Wireless cellular systems, however, cannot be regarded solely as a set of point-to-point links, but rather as a many-to-one (i.e. many users transmitting to one base station) or multiple access channel for the uplink and a one-to-many (i.e. a base station transmitting to many users) or broadcast channel for the downlink. The wireless industry has just started to integrate MIMO techniques into existing cellular standards and to define new cellular standards based on MIMO (see, e.g., the MIMO extensions for UMTS and the IEEE 802.16.3 standard for fixed broadband wireless access (BWA)).
However, very little is known about how to optimally leverage the new degrees of freedom resulting from MIMO terminals in a cellular context. Traditionally, multiple antennas at the base station have been used for interference cancellation thus making a reduction of the spectral reuse factor and hence an increase in cellular system capacity possible. In MIMO systems, multiple antennas can be employed for interference cancellation [], spatial multiplexing [] (i.e. increasing the data rate), and space-time coding [] (i.e., improving the link reliability). A cellular system designer therefore faces the question of how to optimally distribute the available spatial degrees of freedom between these different signalling modes in order to maximise system capacity. Moreover, MIMO signalling techniques can be combined with advanced wireless system design features such as power control, adaptive modulation, and scheduling leading to a wide variety of new techniques.
The goal of our research in the MIMO area is to develop a solid foundation of MIMO cellular systems by investigating various aspects of multi-user broadband MIMO wireless systems. Our research will address topics in three different areas related to multi-user broadband MIMO wireless systems, namely channel modelling, information-theoretic performance limits, and signal processing and coding issues. Based on a thorough study of MIMO broadband channel models supported by measurement campaigns, we plan to proceed by investigating information-theoretic performance limits of MIMO multiple-access channels and MIMO broadcast channels taking into account real-world propagation conditions. The resulting insights shall then be used to guide the development of new MIMO multi-accessing, broadcasting, coding, and signal processing strategies realising the promised performance gains (or a significant fraction thereof). We expect that the results to be obtained in the course of the proposed project will lead to important insights on the integration of MIMO technology into existing and future wireless systems.
7. Mobility management, handoff algorithms, network information theory
In state-of-the-art approaches [,], network level simulations are separated from link level considerations, whereby only a few link level parameters are used to determine the network behaviour. However, more information is available and should be used on the network level to optimise the performance, especially if novel link level concepts like multiantenna systems are employed.
Consequently, in our research we will focus on the cellular network capacity and the network performance that can be achieved by using any available information about the user in the network (link quality, speed, position, profile, requested quality of service (QoS)). Tracking the user in the system and considering the instantaneous propagation conditions, network mechanisms like power control, admission control, handover (or soft handover) and rate switching can be adjusted to achieve higher capacity or QoS. For this, the different kinds of services have to be taken into account and to be classified.
Optimising resource allocation within this area will be one of the keys. Especially when applying new mechanisms like mobile-to-mobile handover or routing, new algorithms have to be evaluated. In this context ad-hoc networks and further handoff (e.g. from one system to another) will be considered.
In order to obtain realistic results, the above considerations will be based on measurements of real-world channels using powerful channel sounders. Especially, the impact of multiantenna (MIMO) systems on the network capacity will be analysed, and the consequences of MIMO systems for resource allocation and mobility management will be studied.
D1.3 Integration
It is apparent that the breadth of the field Analysis and Design of Algorithms for Signal Processing at Large in Wireless Systems calls for joint activities of researchers with complementary competencies and qualities. NEWCOM assembles the critical mass of researchers, who have achieved leadership in one or more of the topics addressed above, and provides a superb framework to strengthen and spread excellence among its participants. We have carefully defined six specific joint research activities to accomplish integration of the researchers with different backgrounds as one of the keys to substantially improve over the state of the art and to give fundamental solutions to the many-sided problems in the area of signal processing in wireless systems.

Deparment 2: MIMO Radio Channel Modelling for Design Optimisation and Performance Assessment of Next Generation Communication Systems
D2.1 Introduction
Usual space-time coding techniques are based on an idealised statistical model of the channel that lends itself to elegant mathematical analysis but is severely unrealistic. Indeed, recently published results show that the number of eigen-channels of MIMO systems strongly depends on the propagation conditions and the array characteristics. In worst-case conditions, called keyholes or pinholes the MIMO system exhibits one eigenchannel, i.e. is equivalent to a single-antenna system.
The above considerations show the importance of getting a deep insight into the features of MIMO systems, and in particular into the dependence of these features on the propagation conditions and the characteristics of the used arrays. The main objective of this project is threefold: (1) to understand the relation-ship between the critical characteristics of MIMO systems, like the probability distributions of the elements of the response matrix, of the eigenvalues, of, the capacity, etc, and the propagation conditions as well as the array geometry, and (2) to derive accurate, realistic stochastic channel models for MIMO applications, and (3) to investigate how far accurate and detailed channel characterisation can be exploited to improve channel estimation techniques.
The results to be expected in (1) will make it possible to assess the effective performance of MIMO communication systems operating in real propagation environments, while the stochastic models derived within (2) will be a useful basis for the design optimisation of broadband wireless communication systems and for Monte-Carlo simulations of the performance of these systems. Finally, (3) is expected to provide valuable input to the design of efficient channel estimator in receivers of communication systems.
D2.2 Research activities
1.Realistic Characterisation of Radio MIMO Systems
It has been recently shown that, the response matrix of a MIMO system is entirely described by the array characteristics (layout and element field patterns) and a so-called bi-direction spread function or spatial spreading function [], []. The latter function characterises dispersion in direction of the propagation channel jointly at both Tx and Rx sites. Moreover, the correlations between the coefficients of the response matrix are entirely determined by the array characteristics and the so-called bi-direction power spectrum or spatial scattering function, which basically describes how the average power propagating between the Tx and Rx sites is distributed jointly in direction of departure and direction of arrival [ NOTEREF _Ref34746897 \h  \* MERGEFORMAT 29 NOTEREF _Ref36276299 \h 19], [].
In the same concept, a virtual representation of the channel [ NOTEREF _Ref34746962 \h 30 NOTEREF _Ref36276311 \h 20] has been proposed, which essentially subdivides the angular domain into “beams” and analyses how much energy is arriving within this beamwidth. This model is very helpful for the intuitive design of MIMO systems, as it allows a link between the information-theoretic approach and the physical channel characteristics.

Physical modelling of the above characteristics can also be based on a beam formalism. Such a beam-based method can make it easy to link virtual channel representation with physical scattering phenomena [ref].

[ref] A. Fluerasu, R. Tahri, C. Letrou, A frame based and beam tracking method for 3D physical modeling of the indoor channel, IEEE European Workshop on Integrated Radio-Communication Systems, Angers, France, May 6-7, 2002.

In order to ease the effective analysis, a random matrix model [] has been recently introduced for MIMO systems considering a high number of receiving and transmitting antennas. Surprisingly, the ergodic capacity can be derived with only a few meaningful parameters and has already shown its accuracy for finite dimension systems [].
The general purpose of the proposed research is to develop random models for MIMO response matrices and to investigate in detail their properties.
Bi-direction Spread Function Model
Investigations will be conducted to extend the representation [ NOTEREF _Ref34746897 \h 29 NOTEREF _Ref36276299 \h 19] for time-variant frequency-selective MIMO systems. Since the current version of the virtual representation of the channel [ NOTEREF _Ref34746962 \h Errore. Il segnalibro non è definito.] shows some oversimplifications (e.g., considering only the support (and not the weighted average) of the energy within a beam), we propose to investigate possible refinements of this model.
Random Response Matrix of MIMO System
In this model, the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution is derived using tools from the random matrix and free probability theory. Refinements of this approach have already been proposed taking into account the receiving (and transmitting) antenna correlation [23]. The results are encouraging and the analysis will be extended to incorporate the directions of arrival and departure in the random matrix model. The goal is to derive the non-ergodic behavior of the mutual information. Connections between this random matrix approach and other models such as the virtual representation will also be made to validate the temporal, spectral and spatial representation of these models.In this model, the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution is derived using tools from the random matrix and free probability theory. Refinement of this approach has already been proposed by taking into account the receiving (and transmitting) antenna correlation by Mestre et al. [] of the Universitat Politechnica de Catalunya. The results are encouraging and collaboration with the previous institute will be intensified for integrating the directions of arrival and departure in the random matrix model. The goal is to derive the non-ergodic behaviour of the mutual information when considering Doppler, DOD and DOA. Connections between this random matrix approach and other models such as the virtual representation will also be made to validate the temporal, spectral and spatial representation of these models.
Keyhole and Pinhole Scenario, Low-rank MIMO Systems
It has been shown [] that the key-hole-like channels have a bi-direction spread-function exhibiting some particular properties. Further investigations will be performed to get a clear understanding of the impact of the shape of the bi-direction spread function on the number of eigenchannels of MIMO systems and under which conditions this shape leads to response matrices with low rank.
Array Optimisation
The relationships mentioned in the introductory part of this section [ NOTEREF _Ref34747230 \h 28], [ NOTEREF _Ref34746897 \h 29], [ NOTEREF _Ref34746962 \h 30 NOTEREF _Ref36276354 \h 18- NOTEREF _Ref36276311 \h 20] enable detailed investigations of the joint effects of array characteristics and propagation conditions on the response matrix of MIMO systems. These relationships will be exploited to perform array optimisation (i.e. layout and element field patterns) for specific propagation conditions.
2. Stochastic Channel Modelling for MIMO Applications
Stochastic models are parametric models, i.e. models characterised by a certain number of parameters, some of them being random variables. The challenge of stochastic modelling is two-fold, (1) to derive realistic, accurate model that incorporate the effects critical for the communication systems under investigations, and (2) to specify accurate probability distributions for the random model parameters. The geometry-based stochastic modelling (GSCM) approach has proven to be very useful for the inclusion of directional information. The locations of scatterers are randomly chosen, following a certain probability density function. The actual channel response is then found by a simplified ray-tracing procedure.
The GSCM in its most simple form was introduced in the 1970s, and refined in the 1990s, for modelling systems with multiple antenna elements at the base station. It has been used extensively since then by academia, and also forms the basis of commercial wireless channel simulators. It has recently been recognised that this approach can in principle also be used for MIMO simulations, but requires several modifications to accurately model effects like interdependence of directions-of-arrival and directions-of-departure. Within this project, we propose the following extensions and refinements of recently proposed generic models, like e.g. in []:
Extension of the Approach to Indoor Environments
The method was originally developed for macro-and micro-cells. Its possible extension to indoor environment will be investigated.
Micro-characterisation of the Propagation Constellation
A prerequisite for channel models to accurately reproduce the number of degrees of freedom typically encountered in real channels is that they incorporate an accurate description of the behaviour of the contribution to the channel system responses of each scatterers individually. One objective of the proposed research will be to derive simple parametric models accurately reflecting (1) the scattering features, i.e. in direction and delay, of objects in the propagation environments that contribute to the channel system responses, like buildings, trees, mountains, etc. and (2) the large-scale fluctuations of these contributions, e.g. by means of birth-death processes.
One-bounce Versus Two-bounce Scattering
In the geometry-based model for MIMO systems, a vital question is (1) if there are multiple-scattering processes, (2) the first scatterer acts as source for multiple second scatterers simultaneously, or whether the second scatterer is selected stochastically from the ensemble at hand (which requires much less computer time). We will investigate whether these two approaches give the same results.
Computer Implementation in MATLAB
Simulation packages implementing the derived stochastic models will be developed and made available to the other partners of NEWCOM. One of the key aspects of all channel models is the implementation efficiency. The models that we will develop within the project are mainly intended for the testing of smart antennae and MIMO algorithms and networks. It is thus required that the generation of the channel response should not take significantly longer than the runtime of the algorithms to be tested.
3. Model-based Channel Estimation Techniques
It has been recognised that the performance of channel estimators can be significantly improved by incorporating an accurate and detailed description of the channel. The objective of this research is to assess how the knowledge gained in Sections  REF _Ref35406716 \r \h 0 REF _Ref34748752 \r \h 1.1.1 and  REF _Ref34748761 \r \h 1.1.1 REF _Ref36276418 \r \h 0 can be exploited to derive efficient, i.e. accurate, robust, and feasible, channel estimators for communication system receivers.
Optimal Amount of Training
The optimal amount of training versus data communications is of crucial importance as it penalises the bit rate in fast fading environment. Usual design methods [] and non-coherent (channel unknown at the transmitter and the receiver) MIMO capacity assessments [] are based on an unrealistic block fading assumption (the channel is constant during a certain duration). One can exploit the new models derived (incorporating the Doppler effect) to predict the channel and reduce the amount of training.
DOA and DOD Estimation
Preliminary works have shown that the estimation of direction of arrival or direction of departure of waves can drastically be improved when the diffuse nature of scatterers are taken into account in the estimator. The work will be extended in order to derive low complex, yet efficient parametric estimation methods based on the previous models.
D2.3 Integration
Each partner in the project has demonstrated international expertise in some significant areas related to the proposed research topics. These topics have been carefully shaped in such a way to guarantee a strong collaboration between these partners and to maximise the synergy effect resulting from these joint activities. Section  REF _Ref35415753 \r \h 0 will be performed in collaboration with the partners involved in the activities  REF _Ref35427140 \r \h 0. A close collaboration will also take place with other NoEs focusing their research activities on experimental channel investigations.
Department 3: Design, Modeling and Experimental Characterisation of RF and Microwave Devices and Subsystems
D3.1 Introduction
Modern wireless communication systems are designed for multimedia applications, where person-to-person communication and/or access to information and services on public and private networks will be enhanced by higher data rates. The performance of the overall system is greatly influenced by the RF or microwave transmitter and receiver. A typical front-end coupled to an antenna is composed of passive and active blocks like low noise amplifiers (LNA), filters, oscillators, mixers, switches, power dividers/combiners, couplers, phase shifters, attenuators, driver amplifiers and power amplifers (PA). A high performance can be obtained by joint optimisation and design of all these components including the antenna. Higher data rates result in higher operation frequencies and this increase in the frequency makes the integration especially important. While the small size, low cost and power efficiency are key factors in handsets, low-noise, low cross-talk, high linearity and wide band performance are significant considerations in base-stations.
D3.2 Research activities
Future RF systems will be increasingly large and complex. High integration technology can reduce the size and cost. A partial integration of building blocks have been customarily done in the form of microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC). A full integration of the blocks or components can be done on the chip level (RF System on Chip - RF SoC) or on the package level (RF System-in-a Package - RF SiP). A successful integration requires the synergy of RF and analogue electronics breakthroughs in order to achieve dense integration, system miniaturisation and high performance of data transmissions up to very high bitrates.


1.Power amplifier linearization
Power amplifiers are essential parts of wireless systems. Modern amplifiers are built from solid state transistors like HBT's, HEMT's, MESFET's, HFET's or LDMOS's. Usually there is a trade-off between linearity and efficiency/size or cost. The nonlinear behaviour of these amplifiers have a large impact on the performance of many communication systems, especially for techniques where the communication signals has a large amplitude variation, such as OFDM and spread spectrum systems. The nonlinear distortions are created by transistors as well as by distributed effects due to the materials or metalic connections between devices. We plan to find system models of amplifiers, and try to combat the performance penalty by techniques like predistortion, nonlinear equalisation, coding, and baseband signal shaping. We propose to develop numerical tools based on Harmonic Balance method to predict the nonlinear performance of RF devices when they are subject to wideband signals, like the ones found in real communication environments.
PA operation in the presence of non-constant envelope, wideband modulations is a challenge also from the standpoint of experimental characterisation procedures. We propose to develop load-pull based characterisation procedures both for power devices and for PA blocks in the presence of realistic modulated signals, with a view of optimising the PA design from the standpoint of linearity (e.g. ACPR) and efficiency (PAE).

2 Oscillator phase noise modeling and estimation
Phase noise in oscillators can be a severe limitation to system performance, especially in multicarrier systems where carriers may be closely spaced. We develop system models of oscillators, and study methods to reduce the effects of phase noise by phase estimation and pilot symbols. We will also try to get ae better understanding on noise characterisation procedure for oscillator design, i.e. on how characterise baseband noise with a view to the noise conversion processes taking place in oscillators.

3 Micromechanical systems as filters in wireless applications
Cellular handsets have to be manufactured in hundreds of millions. Their filters require a technology which offers extremely low-cost, still with reasonably low-loss and high-selectivity. We are interested in assessing filters using micromachined electromechanical systems (MEMS). We also plan to develop and exploit powerful electromagnetic (EM) tools to design and optimise such structures at RF.

4 On the integration of microwave front-ends
Novel multilayered architectures, vertical interconnects and embedded components will be investigated for the effective integration of the subsystems and the minimisation of cross-talk and power losses. Achieving low loss structure also opens the way to designing high Q-structures. The thinner films – flex-foil used in new organic build-up technologies offers the ability to design and implement ultra-high density wiring required to package emerging and future high I/O chip technologies. In most cases, organic technology also has the potential for reducing system packaging cost. The wireless transfer and high bitrate requires efficient and wide band antennas integrated by SoC and/or SiP technique using organic and Si-based technology together with active and passive components.
It is important to improve the radio coverage for WLAN and MIMO systems where passive and active reflect array antennas, so called retrodirective antennas can be used for this objective. The retrodirective antenna arrays can be designed (using for example differential Evolution Algorithm) to become an unequally spaced antenna arrays where the sidelobes can be controlled down to a very small level and the antenna system can be tailored for a particular radio environment.
In dense electromagnetic environment with high data rates, filtering is an essential feature to pass only the desired frequency band and maintain these data rates. The synthesis of filters often requires extensive efforts in design. We would contribute to research new methods to facilitate the simple and rapid synthesis of filters with generalised transfer function.
Base-stations demand low-loss and high-selective filters with small physical size. We are interested to research in the RF stage of a front-end receiver, containing an input filter and a LNA. The qualities of the RF stage can be considerably improved by incorporating cryogenic LNA with a high temperature superconducting (HTS) filter.

References: []-[].
D3.3 Integration
Collaborating in these areas will help develop the capabilities of all institutions.
Forces will be joined for completion of complex projects where many man-year efforts are required. Tackling such projects may be too difficult for many institutions on their own. A collaborative effort will make such undertakings possible.
Exchange of information between institutions will be a catalyst for further innovation.
DEPARTMENT 4: Analysis, Design and Implementation of Digital Architectures and Circuits
D4.1 Introduction
The enduring request for more complex and complete telecommunication services, such as high speed data transmission, multimedia streaming and infotainment, as well as the demand for ubiquitous wireless fruition and nomadic access to the Net have fostered the development of new and efficient solutions to be adopted at all system layers, from the physical one, up to the application layer. However the actual implementation of these system solutions brings up complex problems, in terms of both digital hardware/software technology and design methods.
On the technology side, major challenges are related to processing speed, power dissipation and reconfigurability; despite of the impressive improvements shown by microelectronic technology, the gap between demands coming from system designers and offered hardware capabilities is continuously growing. It is our convincement that this gap can only be filled by the joint design and optimisation of algorithms and architectures. A meaningful example comes from the Software Defined Radio paradigm, that will let the user the freedom of choosing the most suitable radio front-end in a "plug-and-play" fashion: although software platforms have proven superior scalability capabilities with respect to completely hardware solutions, a merely software implementation often suffers from unacceptable limits of speed and energy efficiency. On the contrary hardware/software partitioning and a smart algorithm to architecture mapping are able to offer a better solution, where programmable processors and parametric hardware modules acting as coprocessors jointly implement reconfigurable functions.
Thus the activities in the field of digital design and methodologies for architecture development will be organised in strict cooperation with Departments operating at the system and algorithm levels; the effort of coordinating the complementary expertise of hardware and algorithm designers will be repaid by a further reinforcement of the European research capabilities in the field of wireless communications.
D4.2 Research activities
1. IP Design Framework for SOC
The integration of entire systems on a chip represents the most promising technology answer to several application requirements, including new wireless chipsets, digital multimedia devices (such as set-top boxes), personal digital assistant, automotive systems and network processors. In this approach, a collection of blocks (intellectual property, IP) pre-designed and verified by third parties are combined onto a single chip to implement complex functions. However a number of new problems and challenges arise from this methodology at all the levels of the design process (for example high level synthesis to speed up the design, power optimisation, verification ...) as well as the architecture definition (on-chip communication, reconfigurability ...). A unique and comprehensive solution to the mentioned open problems in system-on-chip (SoC) design is likely unachievable, due to the large differences among possible application fields. We therefore think that research activities on reconfigurable SoC are related to well defined classes of homogeneous processing requirements, so that specific features and commonalities of the addressed algorithms can be exploited in the definition of the design approach.
The research activity will focus on SoC design methods and on-chip communication architectures specifically optimised for two classes of applications:
high performance reconfigurable baseband transceivers for next generations wireless standards
high-parallelism reconfigurable architectures for high bit rate multimedia applications.
These activities aim at creating among participating partners a common framework for IP design and reuse in a SoC development; this framework will include shared design methodologies and tools (both algorithmic specification and rapid, low cost implementation), a set of coherent peripheral interfaces and on-chip communication structure and collaborative libraries of HW and SW IP units.
A first project which can use this framework is the development of high level behavioural modelling of turbo decoders and the implementation of new architectures on programmable SOC. Because of the various elements constituting the system, it can be divided down into 2 or 3 smaller projects each leading to a set of IPs to be integrated in a library.
2. Architectures & Circuits for high performance channel decoders
Turbo-coding, i.e. iterative feedback processing is a suboptimal but promising coding approach which provides near-optimal performance. The spreading out of turbo coding has been spectacular in publications and theoretical developments. By contrast, their hardware implementation is evolving far more slowly. Speed, latency and most of all power consumption break the show when bringing turbo coding principles into practice. First, the iterative decoding process plus the latency of the MAP-decoder causes its latency and throughput to be unacceptable for wireless communication. Second, the interleaving process requires the knowledge of a fully decoded frame at a given iteration before starting the following one and requiring extensive storage. Finally, the computational complexity of the decoder is rather high and a large number of memory accesses and operators cause large power consumption at high throughput in the memories. For the design of such a system, the algorithmic and architectural work should not be tackled as two separate issues. Indeed, during the algorithmic development not only the typical communication performances (such as bit error rate) should be optimised. Implications such as implementation complexity, power consumption, throughput and latency should be taken into account as equally important and thus early in the design phase.
A design methodology capable of integrating algorithmic and architectural exploration starts with a high level system specification and needs a number of orthogonal transformation steps (such as global dataflow transformations, global loop transformations, memory in-place optimisation, ...), aimed at reducing storage and communication bottlenecks in data dominated algorithms; implementation loss must be evaluated at this data flow level and RTL VHDL description is the last design step.
Research activities will make use of the described methodology to explore different implementation solutions for high performance, low power decoding schemes (not only turbo codes but also other powerful schemes, such as low density parity check -LDPC- codes); specific joint projects will be activated on
versatile turbo codes (in terms of rate, size) and the associated decoder
low power architecture design of turbo decoder
high throughput/high spectral efficiency (1Gb/s and 3bits/s/Hz) data links
innovative versatile turbo coding scheme for short blocks (few 100’s of bits) to be used for 4G mobile terminals
iterative processing structures for equalisation, channel estimation and synchronisation.
An additional activity is planned on analogue turbo decoding, that is receiving a growing interest worldwide due to its theoretical advantages over digital decoding in term of speed and complexity. Because of the complexity of analogue decoding, which requires several steps (analogue data memorisation, analogue demodulation…), research on analogue turbo decoder architectures and circuits will be divided down into tasks assigned to research groups.
3 Reconfigurable Hardware/Software Platforms
The next generation of wireless systems not only will need to manage a set of quite different air interfaces, but also must be able to give support to new and complex applications and networks. This will address a higher complexity to all the parts of the system, including the wireless transmission, the network and middleware platforms as well as the applications and services. In such a context the Software Radio concept, assuming complete system reconfiguration, tries to provide a general solution to the problem of integrating different communication networks. Indeed the requirements of flexibility and reconfigurability will have a strong influence in the design of communication system architectures. Then a better understanding of how reconfigurability embrace all the parts of the communication system and how the Software Radio concept can promote the enhancement of the different RAN while providing the desired QoS should be an important activity.
The effective implementation of a Software Defined Radio system implies that the following main problems are studied:
Compatibility among different radio access technologies (RAT) in a unique HW/SW platform
Design of modular HW/SW architectures and definition of proper interfaces
Methods for a fast development of new RAN or optimised versions of the current standards
Techniques for the effective management of the system resources (such as for example available spectrum, energy, HW/SW units)
Automatic and remote management of the equipment to improve their behaviour
Dynamic management of the current session allowing for the real time change of the connection parameters.
The final result of the activity will be twofold: firstly HW/SW platforms will be developed able to support reconfiguration on the Heterogeneous Network Environment; additionally the activity will produce the methods and tools that are required to map a specific RAT onto the developed reconfigurable platform.
The design, with reduced functionalities, of common layers RATs will be used as a specific application case for the described reconfigurable platform. Starting from the observation of the commonalities among the same level layers of different RATs, the procedures and signalling to reconfigure from one RAT to another will be obtained. The three lower layers (Phy, MAC, RLC) for at least two RATs (GSM/GPRS, UMTS and WLAN) will be considered.
4. Architectures & Circuits for Multimedia Application
Thanks to innovative technologies available on 3G mobile terminals, the interest towards multimedia communications has recently gathered developer's community attention. To overcome the bandwidth limits thus ensuring full-rate and good-quality multimedia communication over wireless and Internet Protocols networks, emerging standards such as MPEG4, H.264 and JPEG2000 are being defined by ITUT-T and ISO/IEC teams; however these algorithmic improvements come at the expense of complexity and modern processors dedicated to the signal processing need to grant very high performance. This represents a serious limit for the success of the new multimedia technology and efficient hardware implementations will significantly contribute to the wide integration of heterogeneous functionalities, respecting the requirements of energy, storage and computational capabilities imposed by these scenarios.
Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) architectures have proved their effectiveness in many performance-critical applications. The use of several concurrent functional units, in fact, enables a good exploitation of the Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP), producing a significant speedup. However, VLIW approach presents also some serious disadvantages, compared with Superscalar ones. Firstly, the compiler technology needs to be extremely advanced in order to fully benefit from the increased hardware parallelism; additionally, architectural evolutions and improvements always require a code re-compiling step. Besides, the augmented memory use (due to reduced code density) is probably the most severe VLIW drawback, as it leads to significant power dissipation. The processor design will make use of high-level methodologies, leading to a general approach to performance optimisation and power consumption reduction.
In order to better exploit the enhanced capabilities of this kind of processors, the development of a compiler is highly desirable. In fact the problem of managing the different units with the proper data is of great concern and the feasibility of a compiler able to translate algorithms from a high level language (such as C) to executable code will be deeply investigated.
It is also widely recognised that specific architectures are more suited for the computation of multimedia algorithms whose structure is based on calculations that are not ``signal processing like''. In this category entropy encoding/decoding algorithms and arithmetic coders (such as SPIHT and EBCOT ) are just few examples. In this field the activity will address the architectural study of computationally intensive algorithms, in order to understand where the bottlenecks and the limiting factors are. As a result from this activity a set of Intellectual Properties (IPs) is expected. In particular the implementation of each IP will be carried out as technology independent to allow further optimisations for each different physical layer.
D4.3 Integration
All the described topics of architectural study and IP development are part of the usual research activity for most of the participating partners; energy, performance and reconfigurability requirements represent serious open problems in the design of beyond 3G systems, requiring strong effort by involved researchers. The large overlapping of activities among the partners on these themes (particularly on channel decoding, SDR schemes and SoC) is the first compelling motivation that suggests a real and long term integration, which would have the effect of eliminating useless duplications of efforts and boosting scientific results. An important added value is also expected from the fact that the participating partners have a long term experience in the fields related to the proposed activities, but the adopted approaches and methodologies are often different: for this reason, we think that the cooperation and the mutual exchange of researchers and PhD students will results in a global enhancement for European research.
A more specific added value coming from the integration is related to the fact that most of the activities for researchers in the field of baseband architectures are related to the analysis, design and implementation of circuits, what often implies re-using the same constituting blocks, typically IPs. Therefore the creation of the proposed framework for IP design and integration within NEWCOM is considered of great help for all involved researchers.
Department 5: Source Coding and Reliable Delivery of Multimedia Contents
D5.1 Introduction
Source coding has been a topic of great interest in the past years, for any type of signal : speech, audio, still image, video, and many standards have been established over the last 20 years. The most recent generation of standards introduces increased functionality while increasing the coding efficiency. Among these functionalities, with the introduction of wireless distribution of multimedia, one of the most important ones is robustness to transmission errors.
Shannon said it fifty years ago, source coding and channel coding can be separated in optimum-performance communication systems. However, in practice, this requires infinite block length, delay and complexity in order to work as the theory predicts. In fact, in a number of circumstances, it may be more efficient to use jointly designed and optimised source and channel coders, a strategy which offers more flexibility for taking “external” constraints into account. This is the reason why existing wireless systems often have been standardised in such a way that the channel error rate matches the one that is compatible with signal intelligibility, for example speech in GSM. However, this was feasible due to the natural robustness of speech coded bit streams to transmission errors. When dealing with other multimedia content, such robustness does not occur in a natural way, and the problem has to be taken specifically into account. Furthermore, wireless systems are now connected to other types of networks (e.g. web consultation through a mobile terminal), and the global picture has to be considered.
D5.2 Research activities
This group focuses on the means that will have to be implemented, at the frontiers between source coding, channel coding, and other networking levels, in order to introduce the required amount of robustness in source coders for 3-G and beyond 3-G wireless systems. In the past, most techniques in this area were applied to still image and video. This group will also take audio signals into account.
1. General Tools for Robust Source Coding
Reliable transmission can be improved by various means, some of which have been studied for a long time, and requires some specific basic tools, the study of which has been grouped in an activity which encompasses robustification at the source and channel level. In some cases, the use of such tools does not put the separation between source coding and channel coding into question.
2. Joint Source and Channel Decoding
A second set of techniques works essentially at the decoder side, and aims at providing better source decoders, jointly or not with the channel decoder. Initial works in this area focused on the Variable Length Code structure, while more recent works also tend to make use of the source structure. Such source structure can be, for example, residual correlation or forbidden codewords due to the source semantics. In many cases, the use of such tools do not put the separation between source coding and channel coding into question at the encoder side, only the decoder has to be more flexible.
3. Joint Source and Channel Encoding
A third set of methods require a specific design of the encoder. In some cases, this design of the encoder amounts to artificially increase the natural redundancy in the encoded bit stream. This can be obtained either by changing the “decorrelation tools” (such as linear prediction, transforms, filterbanks, wavelets) in such a way that they leave more redundancy (Multiple Description schemes belong to this category), or by introducing “forbidden” states in variable length codes. Most available methods implicitly work on erasure channels (the location of the block in error is known), while the wireless channels certainly require additional error localisation properties (which can be obtained through the use of real-valued BCH codes and oversampled filterbanks). Ultimately, source and channel encoders are not distinguishable, and have been merged generic source/channel encoders, a category which encompasses the “Shannon mappings”)
4.Methods requiring transmission of quantities between various network layers
Finally, some methods require transmission of quantities between various network layers. The exchange of information between the source decoder and the channel decoder is such an example, but other networking levels could be involved too. This point could be important for beyond 3-G wireless systems, and could lead to a full joint design of the system. This set of methods clearly has strong connections with the “cross layer optimisation” project within NEWCOM, and joint work will be performed.
As already stated, work will be undertaken to select the most appropriate methods for each type of signal : speech, audio (stereo as well as multichannel), still image, video, 3-D).
D5.3 Integration activities
Despite the fact that many tools for reliable source transmission have been known for a while, very few of them have been used in practical situations and standards. In fact, it took time to realise that many results obtained in the above mentioned topics were not really compatible with some other element of the signal processing chain. However, basic techniques seem to be much more mature now, and cooperation is a necessity in this field.
At a first level, on each topic, the “best” method is not really known, and a “cooperative competition” with strong links between NEWCOM teams has a great potential in terms of evaluation and maturation of ideas and algorithms.
On some topics listed above, such as soft decoding of VLC’s and iterative decoding, lot of work is undertaken inside NEWCOM. For these topics, clear and precise exchange of information should quickly result in a good evaluation of the potential of the methods. For some other ones, such as Shannon Mappings, real-valued BCH, among others, where the work in mainly undertaken at one place, it is expected that dissemination of ideas will quickly result in a good maturation of the ideas.

5 Common Software Platform
We agreed in building a common software platform, in which all members could plug their algorithms and perform fair comparisons. This also allows to combine methods which are compatible (e.g. item 1 is compatible with many other ones) and has the potential of large improvements. We focus on 3-G and beyond 3-G situations, with source coders of this generation.
Department 6: Protocols and Architectures, and Traffic Modeling for (Reconfigurable/ Adaptive) Wireless Networks
D6.1 Introduction
Ideally, at the transport layer, data traffic requires that the sender simply retransmits a packet lost due to unfavourable conditions of the wireless channel, without taking any congestion control actions. Such behaviour is typically not realisable because errors over the wireless channel are easily mistaken for congestion losses by the transport layer entities. The ideal network behaviour provides for wireless channel errors to be hidden from the sender, so that errors are recovered transparently and efficiently. The schemes proposed in the literature attempt to approximate this ideal behaviour; most of them assume the TCP/IP protocol architecture. Specifically, the proposed solutions belong to several categories: link level mechanisms that enhance the robustness of the link level through FEC and ARQ techniques []; split connection approaches that split a TCP connection in several legs, including the wired and wireless portions of the network []; TCP-aware link layer mechanisms that improve the cooperation between the transport and link layers []; explicit notification schemes where the nature of a packet loss is explicitly indicated by the wireless node []; and receiver- or sender-based discrimination techniques where either the sender or the receiver detects whether a loss was due to congestion or to wireless channel error [].
With regard to multimedia traffic, UDP is usually employed at the transport layer, hence no congestion control is provided by the transport layer. Applications, if they need it, have to provide some forms of congestion control, as well as packet ordering and error recovery at the receiver [].
Quality of Service at the network layer has often been the object of proposal, both in the scientific literature and within standardisation bodies (such as the IETF). Recently, the DiffServ architecture has been standardised, offering probabilistic guarantees to traffic aggregates through traffic classification and packet marking at edge nodes and per-class queuing at core nodes. More recently, the DiffServ architecture is being extended to the wireless portion of the network, e.g., exploiting the 802.11 enhanced standard [].
Despite previous efforts, providing efficient protocol support for multimedia services over mobile wireless networks remains a challenge and requires that all layers of the protocol stack and their interactions are considered.
D6.2 Research activities
It is well known that the layered protocol architecture has severe performance problems in mobile wireless networks. In fact in such environments, user mobility together with the unreliability of wireless links creates strong dependencies between the functionality implemented at different layers. This calls for a rethinking of the protocol architecture. While designing a novel protocol aarchitecture, it is of crucial importance to acquire a proper understanding of the traffic sources in the network and develop proper traffic models to capture their behaviour. This NEWCOM Department will therefore include the following two research activities.

1. Protocols and architectures for reconfigurable/adaptive wireless networks
Objective of this activity is to define new protocols and architectures which maximise performance while addressing reconfigurability and adaptivity requirements that typically arise in wireless networks due to variable system environments and channel conditions. Issues that will be given special attention in the development of the new protocols and architectures are as follows:
TCP/IP Compatibility: Obviously, the proposed protocol suite must be compatible with the traditional TCP/IP protocol suite. This may be done through an appropriate protocol translator located at the gateway between the wireless network domain and the public Internet. This would provide flexibility and allow us to envision new transport layer mechanisms at the wireless communication nodes, which enable an efficient transfer of multimedia traffic. This approach should be compared with an all-IP approach.
Congestion Control: In the Internet, TCP is responsible for such functionality. However, it is well known that TCP has very low performance in wireless networks. Most proposed solutions to this problem consider that congestion control must be executed at the transport layer on an end-to-end basis; a few solutions also describe TCP-aware link layer mechanisms. The critical mass of researchers involved in NEWCOM allows a rethinking of the problem and to investigate alternative solutions in which congestion control is not a transport layer functionality.
QoS provisioning: Providing multimedia services in wireless systems requires support for quality of service (QoS) provisioning. This aspect involves all layers of the protocol stack and will be studied at the transport layer, at the network layer, at the link control layer, and at the MAC layer. For instance, scalable QoS-aware routing protocols which meet the specific requirements imposed by the different multimedia applications on the underlying network infrastructure are required. The interaction and/or exchange of state information between, not necessarily neighbouring, layers have to be considered.
Mobility Management: Mobility management is another important issue to consider during protocol development. The availability of location information (e.g. position and speed), which can be provided by location positioning systems (e.g. GPS), can be utilised to develop intelligent handover protocols for cellular networks. Vertical handovers which may occur in heterogeneous wireless networks pose new research challenges. Protocols that strive to guarantee session continuity and avoid performance degradation are required.
Support for Distributed Applications: Many distributed applications rely on the ability to broadcast information within the network components. Several distributed protocols have been developed for broadcasting messages in static networks. Their purpose is to enable some node to initiate a propagation of a message, to be received eventually by all connected nodes. One major research goal is to design and develop a distributed protocol that can be combined with protocols that were designed originally for synchronised static networks. The combined protocol can then be executed over a wireless network with highly mobile users.
2. Traffic models for wireless networks
A fundamental condition to study protocol performance is the availability of realistic traffic models that are able to capture the very nature of information flows to convey on wireless networks. Research work on traffic models and on protocols and architectures are therefore integrated within the same NEWCOM Department. The programme of research for traffic modeling has two major goals:
Design and development of new video traffic models. Most of the current methods for modeling video traffic are based on mathematical analysis to set up a source model that generates traffic according to a stochastic process [], []. The work here will result in a different and more practical approach to modeling video traffic in mobile communications systems. It has to take into account aspects such as varying channel conditions, link layer parameter allocations, packetisation, and coding options. New models should be used to investigate optimal multimedia settings and radio resource allocation in multi-user scenarios. In addition, the usefulness of such models have to be examined for cell dimensioning, admission control, and mobility management. Although the principal aim will be to facilitate testing of new protocol architectures, the models will also have potential for application in 3G mobile communication systems.
New channel/link models for multimedia protocols. Stochastic channel models are key to performance evaluation of network protocols developed for wireless networks. The traditional approach to error and packet loss modeling is to create a Markovian model based upon collected network traffic traces []. Such models provide ease of use and repeatability to network protocol and application developers. A novel channel modeling methodology should be developed to accommodate various scenarios and should be compared and contrasted with existing models (e.g. the Gilbert model). The channel model implementation has to be compatible with ns-2 to facilitate performance evaluation based on the publicly available ns-2 platform.
The research work above will be complemented with the development of simulation packages, which reflect both activities on traffic models and new protocols and architectures. These packages will be integrated into the common Software Platform being anticipated as a NEWCOM Integration Activity.

D6.3 Integration
As mentioned above, over a mobile wireless network the protocol layers are highly dependent on each other which calls for a rethinking of the protocol architecture. Capturing the dependencies between adjacent layers will allow design choices leading to improved performance. However, to handle the complexity of a wireless system requires a broad range of competencies. To this purpose the research integration leveraged by the proposed NoE can play a crucial role. In fact, NEWCOM is composed by scientists with different background in telecommunications and networking, who can set the requirements for the system and derive the new protocol architecture able to satisfy such requirements. Developing the component protocols based on a common set of assumptions and goals will ensure that the protocols at various layers will work together and will allow exploration of where in the protocol architecture various pieces of functionality should best be placed. Having an appropriate set of traffic models that are used for evaluation of all the proposed protocols is crucial to be able to compare different solutions. By integrating the solutions developed by different partners into one single simulations package, this Department will be able to investigate a broader range of solutions and carry out more useful performance assessments. A systems perspective on the work requires the whole protocol architecture of the wireless network to be considered. We believe that the broad competences in multimedia traffic applications, as well as in networking and transmission issues, that exist within NEWCOM are required to achieve this.
Department 7: QoS Provision in Wireless Networks: Radio Resource Management, Mobility, and Security
D7.1 Introduction
One of the main challenges for future wireless networks will be the ability to provide high bit rate multimedia services under QoS guarantees over different wireless access technologies. In the last few years several technologies have been introduced to work in infrastructured and non-infrastructured scenarios (e.g. UTRAN, TETRA, IEEE802.11, Bluetooth, HiperLAN,...) [,,]. A common denominator of all of them is that they will be mainly oriented to the transport of IP-based services. A lot of effort has been devoted up to date in the provision of QoS guarantees for IP services in wired systems, based on IP layer procedures, like scheduling, routing and buffering. However, few assumptions are made about the link layer, due to the high predictability of its behaviour in wired systems. On the contrary, in a wireless scenario, the mobility and the lack of predictability of the link and physical layers pose problems when QoS control mechanisms are only considered at IP layer. This consideration introduces new research issues in order to design efficient mechanisms that ensure the QoS guarantees demanded by multimedia applications by means of a proper convergence layer between IP and lower layers.
D7.2 Research activities
1 Framework for QoS provision in heterogeneous wireless networks
The starting point for the activity in this Department relays in the definition of a proper framework to establish a common understanding of what does QoS provision mean in future wireless systems that combine different radio access technologies. It is clear that in a multistandard wireless system QoS implies the possibility of accessing the desired services over the best available network, with satisfactory performance and reasonable cost. Therefore, QoS guarantees have many faces to consider, in terms of accessibility, reliability, fault tolerance, dependability, energy efficiency, reconfigurability, mobility support, multiservice support, streaming support, multicast support, wide bandwidth, low delay, marginal loss probability, security,... So at the end of this activity it should become clear the QoS provision concept and which are the available tools in heterogeneous networks to provide it.
2 Development of radio resource allocation schemes to guarantee QoS in heterogeneous wireless networks
Whenever a set of multimedia services should be provided across a wireless channel under QoS guarantees one of the main problems becomes the management of the access to the radio channel and the utilisation of the scarce radio resources. The solution to this problem comes from the design of proper Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms that take into account specific service demands as well as resource availability to configure the transmission through the radio interface. Several approaches can be used, but a common framework is modelling it as an optimisation problem with constraints. In [] authors consider combined power and rate allocation to a user, [] proposes to use genetic algorithms, in [] authors propose to optimise the perceived quality of service rather than to concentrate on the bit rate only. A possible approach for resource allocation is then to combine it with pricing strategies []. By differentiating users it is possible to propose allocation strategies that take into account the price a user is willing to pay.
A common denominator of the topics to be addressed is that they target optimising the "resource efficiency", which is critical for combining high data rates with low costs, and thus realising a system with wireless flexibility and fixed-connection price/performance that maximises expected operator revenues. This should be a reasonable over-all object of future research bearing today's tele-economic situation in mind. Efficiency must be pursued at all OSI layers and since the system environment is varying dynamically in time, the network components should respond dynamically, adapting to the actual conditions. The end result is a network that adapts and reconfigures itself dynamically.
There are several aspects that should be studied in the framework of RRM strategies. They include admission control, to decide whether or not new connections can be accepted, congestion control to recover the radio system in front of situations in which the quality of service is degraded due to system dynamics in terms of mobility, traffic variability,... power control devised to meet the specific QoS guarantees with minimum power consumption, and radio resource scheduling, that allocates on very short periods the resources to the users or to a subset of users according to the current interference measurements, the waiting delays of the different users, the class of service,...
Resource allocation is generally studied in the context of one centralised system generally with a FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) CDMA air interface. There is still a need for extensive research in this context. However the field of research has to be extended. For example:
Specific resource allocation algorithms must be designed for TDD (Time Division Duplex) systems that are best fitted for managing asymmetrical traffic like web browsing and more generally data applications.
Different radio access networks must be considered, this requiring the design of common or joint RRM strategies operating above the individual ones and aiming at optimising the resource utilisation in each radio access technology.
Decentralised allocation must be studied, with the design of MAC protocols where the mobiles keep the minimum information to decide by themselves when and how they should transmit to achieve their QoS guarantees. This will minimise the signalling thus achieving a more efficient use of the radio interface.
3 Development of mobility management strategies to guarantee QoS in heterogeneous wireless networks
Mobile networks have traditionally been designed via extensions of existing fixed network protocols such as SS7 and IP to support key mobility functions such as location management, authentication, and handoff. Typically, these protocols were used in architectures where a single service is provided to large numbers of mobile users. With the emergence of various new short-range and medium-range wireless data networks (such as Bluetooth PAN and IEEE 802.11 WLAN), there is a need for a network architecture that accommodates heterogeneous radio links and permits evolution of mobile network services to include basic mobility features as well as newer requirements such as self-configuration, ad-hoc routing, QoS, multicasting, content caching, etc. Such 4G wireless networks can be realised with an IPv6-based core network for global routing along with more customised local-area radio access networks that support features such as dynamic handoff and ad-hoc routing. This motivates research on open-architecture IPv6 networks for wireless, as well as the specifics of new ad-hoc network protocols for self-configuration, multihop routing, seamless handover, service management, reliable transport and security/privacy, etc. The clear separation of network infrastructure and end systems will disappear in 4G systems, and mobile nodes will concurrently operate as end systems as well as routers. Networks will be self-configured with high dynamics. The IPv6 based architecture for this converged 4G and wired IP-based networks where IPv6 becomes the “glue” for wired and wireless networks requires addressing of several research issues.
It is expected that Mobile-IPv6 will become the standard mechanism for mobility. To enhance Mobile-IPv6, so-called "micro-mobility" protocols have been developed for handovers that result in minimal handover delay, minimal packet loss, and minimal loss of communication state. Micro-mobility protocols should be deployed only in the administrative domains and access networks where they are required. Routing-table driven micro-mobility proposals, such as Cellular IP and Hawaii are immature, and research on such proposals are currently carried on. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6), on the other hand, is based on Mobile-IP itself. IP-mobility should be enhanced and optimised for 4G networks, and it is necessary to conduct further study on the performances of these different protocols.
Another challenging aspect for QoS provision is related to high mobility environments. On 11th December 2002, the IEEE Standards Board approved the establishment of IEEE 802.20, the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Working Group []. Their mission is to develop the specification for an efficient packet based air interface that is optimised for the transport of IP based services. It supports various vehicular mobility classes up to 250 km/h in a MAN environment and targets spectral efficiencies, sustained user data rates and numbers of active users that are all significantly higher than those achieved by existing mobile systems. The existing IP handover protocols are not equipped to offer high quality of service (QoS), especially in high mobility environments. Here the handover frequency becomes the bottleneck for the provision of Internet multimedia services at vehicular speed. The IETF SeaMoby Working Group [] has identified this problem and states that to achieve true seamless handover, new low latency and low packet loss handover protocols are needed.
Recently, some research [] has gone into the feasibility of using mobile location information for adaptive handover. This can easily be provided e.g. by using GPS equipment. This location information could be the core for future enhanced handover protocols with QoS provisioning in wireless cellular networks characterised by predictive host mobility.
3 Development of security algorithms in heterogeneous wireless networks
By introducing support for security in Quality of Service (QoS)-aware environments, end-users will have the opportunity to choose their own desired security level. The proposed research activity aims at defining, developing, and implementing security as a QoS-dimension in wireless communication networks. Two key research issues have been identified, specifically, to propose definitions of security that reflect the need of the users of the communication channels and to define methods to arrive at quantitative values for the different security and privacy aspects to be included in such environments.
D7.3 Integration
The activities in this disciplinary NEWCOM department intend to integrate the efforts and excellence of the involved research groups in the definition and evaluation of a suitable strategies to enable the transmission of multimedia flows over an heterogeneous wireless network scenario.

Protocols and Architectures, and Traffic Modeling for (Reconfigurable/ Adaptive) Wireless Networks
State of the Introduction
Ideally, at the transport layer, data traffic requires that the sender simply retransmits a packet lost due to unfavourable conditions of the wireless channel, without taking any congestion control actions. Such behaviour is typically not realisable because errors over the wireless channel are easily mistaken for congestion losses by the transport layer entities. The ideal network behaviour provides for wireless channel errors to be hidden from the sender, so that errors are recovered transparently and efficiently. The schemes proposed in the literature attempt to approximate this ideal behaviour; most of them assume the TCP/IP protocol architecture. Specifically, the proposed solutions belong to several categories: link level mechanisms that enhance the robustness of the link level through FEC and ARQ techniques []; split connection approaches that split a TCP connection in several legs, including the wired and wireless portions of the network []; TCP-aware link layers that improve the cooperation between the transport and link layers []; explicit notification schemes where the nature of a packet loss is explicitly indicated by the wireless node []; and receiver- or sender-based discrimination where either the sender or the receiver detects whether a loss was due to congestion or to wireless channel error [].
With regard to multimedia traffic, UDP is usually employed at the transport layer, hence no congestion control is provided by the transport layer. Applications, if they need it, have to provide some forms of congestion control, as well as packet ordering and error recovery at the receiver [].
Quality of Service at the network layer has often been the object of proposal, both in the scientific literature and within standardisation bodies (such as the IETF). Recently, the DiffServ architecture has been standardised, offering probabilistic guarantees to traffic aggregates through traffic classification and packet marking at edge nodes and per-class queuing at core nodes. More recently, the DiffServ architecture is being extended to the wireless portion of the network, e.g., exploiting the 802.11 enhanced standard [].
Despite previous efforts, providing efficient protocol support for multimedia services over mobile wireless networks remains a challenge and requires that all layers of the protocol stack and their interactions are considered.
Research Lines
It is well known that the layered protocol architecture has severe performance problems in mobile wireless networks. In fact in such environments, user mobility together with the unreliability of wireless links creates strong dependencies between the functionality implemented at different layers. This calls for a rethinking of the protocol architecture. Based on the combined competences of NEWCOM we intend to develop a new protocol suite better tailored to this environment. Objective of the proposed protocols will be maximising performance while decreasing cost in terms of battery and network resource consumption. Issues that will be given special attention in the development of the protocols include:
TCP/IP Compatibility: Congestion Control:QoS provisioning: Mobility Management: Support for Distributed Applications:
A proper understanding of the traffic sources in the network and appropriate traffic models to capture their behaviour are crucial for protocol design. The traffic models used for performance evaluation should be based on the same set of assumptions as was used for the development of the protocols. Research work on a new protocol architecture and research work on traffic models are therefore integrated within the same NEWCOM Department. The programme of research for traffic modeling has two goals: to improve traffic modeling techniques compared to the state of the art, and to provide a simulation platform for testing the newly developed protocol architectures and protocols. Improvements to state of the art modeling techniques will in turn focus on two particular areas:
The design and development of new video traffic models.New channel/link models for multimedia protocols.
The research work will be integrated into a single simulation package, which includes both traffic models and models of the new protocol architecture. This will thus enable refinement of protocols and protocol architectures, along with optimisation of a variety of settings associated with optimal multimedia delivery over mobile networks.
Integration
As mentioned above, over a mobile wireless network the protocol layers are highly dependent on each other which calls for a rethinking of the protocol architecture. Capturing the dependencies between adjacent layers will allow design choices leading to improved performance. However, to handle the complexity of a wireless system requires a broad range of competencies. To this purpose the research integration leveraged by the proposed NoE can play a crucial role. In fact, NEWCOM is composed by scientists with different background in telecommunications and networking, who can set the requirements for the system and derive the new protocol architecture able to satisfy such requirements. Developing the component protocols based on a common set of assumptions and goals will ensure that the protocols at various layers will work together and will allow exploration of where in the protocol architecture various pieces of functionality should best be placed. Having an appropriate set of traffic models that are used for evaluation of all the proposed protocols is crucial to be able to compare different solutions. By integrating the solutions developed by different partners into one single simulations package we will be able to investigate a broader range of solutions and carry out more useful performance assessments. A systems perspective on the work requires the whole protocol architecture of the wireless network to be considered. We believe that the broad competences in multimedia traffic applications, as well as in networking and transmission issues, that exist within NEWCOM are required to achieve this.
QoS Provision in Wireless Networks: Mobility, Security and Radio Resource Management
Introduction
One of the main challenges for future wireless networks will be the ability to provide high bit rate multimedia services under QoS guarantees over different wireless access technologies. In the last few years several technologies have been introduced to work in infrastructured and non-infrastructured scenarios (e.g. UTRAN, TETRA, IEEE802.11, Bluetooth, HiperLAN,...) [,,]. A common denominator of all of them is that they will be mainly oriented to the transport of IP based services. A lot of effort has been devoted up to date in the provision of QoS guarantees for IP services in wired systems, based on IP layer procedures, like scheduling, routing and buffering. However, few assumptions are made about the link layer, due to the high predictability of its behaviour in wired systems. On the contrary, in a wireless scenario, the mobility and the lack of predictability of the link and physical layers pose problems when QoS control mechanisms are only considered at IP layer. This consideration introduces new research issues in order to design efficient mechanisms that ensure the QoS guarantees demanded by multimedia applications by means of a proper convergence layer between IP and lower layers.
Research Lines
Framework for QoS Provision
The starting point for the activity in this department relays in the definition of a proper framework to establish a common understanding of what does QoS provision mean in future wireless systems that combine different radio access technologies. It is clear that in a multistandard wireless system QoS implies the possibility of accessing the desired services over the best available network, with satisfactory performance and reasonable cost. Therefore, QoS guarantees have many faces to consider, in terms of accessibility, reliability, fault tolerance, dependability, energy efficiency, reconfigurability, mobility support, multiservice support, streaming support, multicast support, wide bandwidth, low delay, marginal loss probability, security,... So at the end of this activity it should become clear the QoS provision concept and which are the available tools in heterogeneous networks to provide it.
Radio Resource Management
Whenever a set of multimedia services should be provided across a wireless channel under QoS guarantees one of the main problems becomes the management of the access to the radio channel and the utilisation of the scarce radio resources. The solution to this problem comes from the design of proper Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms that take into account specific service demands as well as resource availability to configure the transmission through the radio interface. Several approaches can be used but a common framework is to model it as an optimisation problem with constraints. In [] authors consider combined power and rate allocation to a user, [] proposes to use genetic algorithms, in [] it is proposed to optimise the perceived quality of service rather than to concentrate on the bit rate only. A possible approach for resource allocation is then to combine it with pricing strategies []. By differentiating users it is possible to propose allocation strategies that take into account the price a user is willing to pay.
A common denominator of the topics to be addressed is that they target optimising the "resource efficiency", which is critical for combining high data rates with low costs, and thus realising a system with wireless flexibility and fixed-connection price/performance that maximises expected operator revenues. This should be a reasonable over-all object of future research bearing today's tele-economic situation in mind. Efficiency must be pursued at all OSI layers and since the system environment is varying dynamically in time, the network components should respond dynamically, adapting to the actual conditions. The end result is a network that adapts and reconfigures itself dynamically.
There are several aspects that should be studied in the framework of RRM strategies. They include admission control, to decide whether or not new connections can be accepted, congestion control to recover the radio system in front of situations in which the quality of service is degraded due to system dynamics in terms of mobility, traffic variability,... power control devised to meet the specific QoS guarantees with minimum power consumption, and radio resource scheduling, that allocates on very short periods the resources to the users or to a subset of users according to the current interference measurements, the waiting delays of the different users, the class of service,...
Resource allocation is generally studied in the context of one centralised system generally with a FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) CDMA air interface. There is still a need for extensive research in this context. However the field of research must be extended :
specific resource allocation algorithms must be designed for TDD (Time Division Duplex) systems that are best fitted for managing asymmetrical traffic like web browsing and more generally data applications.
different radio access networks must be considered, this requiring the design of common or joint RRM strategies operating above the individual ones and aiming at optimising the resource utilisation in each radio access technology,
decentralised allocation must be studied, with the design of MAC protocols where the mobiles keep the minimum information to decide by themselves when and how they should transmit to achieve their QoS guarantees. This will minimise the signalling thus achieving a more efficient use of the radio interface.
Mobility
Mobile networks have traditionally been designed via extensions of existing fixed network protocols such as SS7 and IP to support key mobility functions such as location management, authentication and handoff. Typically, these protocols were used in architectures where a single service is provided to large numbers of mobile users. With the emergence of various new short-range and medium-range wireless data networks (such as Bluetooth PAN and IEEE 802.11 WLAN), there is a need for a network architecture that accommodates heterogeneous radio links and permits evolution of mobile network services to include basic mobility features as well as newer requirements such as self-configuration, ad-hoc routing, QoS, multicasting, content caching, etc. Such 4G wireless networks can be realised with an IPv6-based core network for global routing along with more customised local-area radio access networks that support features such as dynamic handoff and ad-hoc routing. This motivates research on open-architecture IPv6 networks for wireless, as well as the specifics of new ad-hoc network protocols for self-configuration, multihop routing, seamless handover, service management, reliable transport and security/privacy, etc. The clear separation of network infrastructure and end systems will disappear in 4G systems, and mobile nodes will concurrently operate as end systems and as routers. Networks will be self-configured with high dynamics. The IPv6 based architecture for this converged 4G and wired IP-based networks where IPv6 becomes the “glue” for wired and wireless networks requires addressing of several research issues.
It is expected that Mobile-IPv6 will become the standard mechanism for mobility. To enhance Mobile-IPv6, so-called "micro-mobility" protocols have been developed for handovers that result in minimal handover delay, minimal packet loss, and minimal loss of communication state. Micro-mobility protocols should be deployed only in the administrative domains and access networks where they are required. Routing-table driven micro-mobility proposals, such as Cellular IP and Hawaii are immature, and research on such proposals are currently carried on. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6), on the other hand, is based on Mobile-IP itself. IP-mobility should be enhanced and optimised for 4G networks, and it is necessary to conduct further study on the performances of these different protocols.
Another challenging aspect for QoS provision is related to high mobility environments. On 11th December 2002, the IEEE Standards Board approved the establishment of IEEE 802.20, the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Working Group []. Their mission is to develop the specification for an efficient packet based air interface that is optimised for the transport of IP based services. It supports various vehicular mobility classes up to 250 km/h in a MAN environment and targets spectral efficiencies, sustained user data rates and numbers of active users that are all significantly higher than those achieved by existing mobile systems. The existing IP handover protocols are not equipped to offer high quality of service (QoS), especially in high mobility environments. Here the handover frequency becomes the bottleneck for the provision of Internet multimedia services at vehicular speed. The IETF SeaMoby Working Group [] has identified this problem and states that to achieve true seamless handover, new low latency and low packet loss handover protocols are needed.
Recently, some research [] has gone into the feasibility of using mobile location information for adaptive handover. This can easily be provided e.g. by using GPS equipment. This location information could be the core for future enhanced handover protocols with QoS provisioning in wireless cellular networks characterised by predictive host mobility.
Security
By introducing support for security in Quality of Service (QoS)-aware environments, end-users will have the opportunity to choose their own desired security level. The proposed research activity aims at defining, developing, and implementing security as a QoS-dimension in wireless communication networks. Two key research issues have been identified, specifically, to propose definitions of security that reflects the need of the users of the communication channels and to define methods to arrive at quantitative values for the different security and privacy aspects to be included in such environments.
Integration
Description of Projects
pROJECT A. Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
PA.1 Introduction
Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks represent today, and will represent in the near future, two interesting research and application environments in wireless communications, mainly due to their intended support of a “no-limit” infrastructure-less communication.
Ad Hoc networks do not have a universally accepted definition, but, based on their applications, they can be regarded as self-deployed networks, i.e. networks rapidly established for a given purpose, in which some devices take part only for the duration of a communication session. Ad Hoc networks pose many significant new challenges with respect to traditional wireless networks. All these aspects can be summarised up as follows:
Complete independence of infrastructure.
Use of a broadcast medium.
Multi-hop communication.
Security depending on medium characteristics.
Mobility of terminals which leads to link failures.
Dynamic unpredictable topology.
Heterogeneity of devices, and consequently fluctuating link capacity and network resources.
Device energy constraints.
Autonomous and spontaneous nature of nodes.
On the other hand, a sensor network can be regarded as a self-configurable network, made of numerous sensors, linked by a wireless medium, which performs distributed sensing tasks. A sensor network is not an ad hoc network, even if their similarities are numerous. Some of the main differences are the following:
Sensor devices in a sensor network are typically more than the actual terminals in an ad hoc network.
Sensors are strongly limited with respect to battery life, they cannot be recharged and are therefore particularly prone to failures.
Sensors are usually able to perform only sensing tasks.
Sensors addressing is done based on location or data.
Sensors IDs may not be unique like, for example, IP addresses.
PA.2 Research activities
In the past most of the research efforts have been devoted to topics relevant to Ad Hoc and Sensor networks [-], but often they have focused on just one topic. On the contrary, in dealing with this type of dynamic and infrastructure-less networks, multidisciplinary knowledge is absolutely needed and, consequently, contribution from all Departments is required. Typical examples of transversal issues which deserve complementary efforts are the following:
1 Energy Efficiency Optimisation in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
This is a critical issue in Ad Hoc Networks, and even more in Sensor Networks whose nodes cannot be recharged. Energy efficient solutions are required at all layers of the protocol stack. At the physical layer, power control functions and energy efficient modulation techniques are of particular interest. At the MAC layer, it is fundamental to investigate energy-aware techniques for traffic scheduling, and their interactions with link layer error recovery schemes and transport mechanisms. Energy efficient routing algorithms at the network layer and information coding techniques at the application layer can significantly extend the lifetime of the network nodes. Besides, a joint optimisation of the whole system architecture overcoming the layered protocol structure is necessary.
2 QoS Provisioning in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
The characteristics and constraints of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, such as dynamically changing network topologies, limited link bandwidth and quality, variation in link and node capabilities, etc., considerably affect the typical network QoS metrics, such as throughput, packet loss, delay, jitter, error rate, and so on. In general, multimedia support is a multifaceted issue. In particular, in the area of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, the study of techniques to support differentiated services concerns studying various topics, such as adaptive coding, transmission power trade-offs, scheduling, priority-based MAC schemes, QoS routing, resource reservation signaling, end-to-end control algorithms.
3 Reliability and Scalability Support in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
In Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks connectivity is obtained by routing and forwarding packets among multiple mobile nodes in a multi-hop infrastructure-less environment. This poses a lot of design challenges as compared to traditional wired and wireless infrastructured networks. Various unpredictable events like sudden topology variation, overload conditions, or selfish attitudes, can cause a node’s failure to forward a packet. Also, misbehaving links and nodes can have a severe impact to the overall network performance. Lack of centralised monitoring and management implies that these types of misbehaviour might not be fasly detected and isolated, which adds significant complexity to protocol design at all layers (MAC, network, and transport). Moreover, the dynamic nature of Ad Hoc Networks requires scalable solutions to be implemented at every layer of the system architecture. This issue is even more important in Sensor Networks, since they typically include a very large number of nodes. Scalability must be one of the main objectives when developing schemes for routing algorithms, traffic scheduling schemes, localisation, self-organisation, and mobility management functions. The fundamental requirement for providing network scalability is to envision fully distributed solutions, which will be based on local network information only.
Each of the above multidisciplinary issues corresponds to activities that will be carried out by the NEWCOM Projects. They will specifically address cost-effective cross-layer solutions to the design problems raised by these issues.
4 Simulation Software Library for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
Another important issue which deserves further research in the area of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks is related to the current lack of powerful available instruments beyond the traditional general-purpose tools originally devised for wired and infrastructure-based wireless networks. So there is a urgent need of advanced simulation models and tools able to capture peculiarities of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (variable topology of the network, intermittence of signals emitted by sleeping/idle/awake nodes, adaptive grouping and/or clustering of nodes, wide ranges of variability in mobility and traffic patterns, etc.). This poses new challenges to the ones already raised, in a coarse way, when addressing simulation in wireless communications. From this perspective, it is evident that the corresponding activity in this NEWCOM Project will have significant interactions with all other NEWCOM Departments. In fact, the software library to be created and maintained by the Project on Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks will integrate the software modules developed by NEWCOM Departments dedicated to monothematic issues.
PA.3 Integration
NEWCOM especially aims at developing a strong programme of jointly executed research to support the co-operation and convergence of complementary research groups existing in Europe. The partnership of these groups will be steered towards specific programmes of excellence spreading and common platform sharing, and/or cooperative objective-driven IP or STREP projects in the field of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks.
As a first step in this direction, a strategic instrument within NEWCOM will be the constitution of Special Interest Groups (SIGs). In the framework of the Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) these SIGs will operate in the WPs anticipated in this NEWCOM Project, by closely interacting with WPs of NEWCOM Departments which study techniques that in principle are applicable to Wireless Communications in large. More specifically, SIGs:
will identify advantages and disadvantages of the solutions developed within the NEWCOM Departments when these are applied to Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks;
will suggest the guidelines for solutions specifically for Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks to the NEWCOM Departments.
Moreover, the work of SIGs will start with the identification of some transversal issues which have major significance in the area of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks and require the complementary and cooperative effort of classical layer-oriented research Departments. As the dominant approach of this Project will be the cross-layer perspective, it will also tightly interact with the other NEWCOM Projects (especially, the Project E on Cross-Layer Optimisation).
All together, these SIGs are intended to constitute a forum, which will act as a gravity center for the relevant knowledge dissemination all over Europe, and will last fairly beyond the contractual period.
Moreover, a Simulation Software Library will be maintained, to join the software simulation modules developed within the individual NEWCOM Departments into an integrated tool.
pROJECT b. Ultra-wide Band Communication Systems
PB.1 Introduction
According to the terminology, in Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) communications systems high-rate information is transmitted in a wide frequency band. Per definition, the bandwidth must be in excess of 25% of the center frequency of the power spectrum. This technique allows information to be transmitted in frequency bands that may partially or entirely overlap with the band of more traditional narrowband services, in a so-called overlay fashion. In order to control the amount of interference with other systems, the transmit power of the UWB device has to be low. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the USA has recently lifted the ban on the employment of UWB transmission, authorising its limited commercial use, provided that certain maximum power levels are not exceeded. In Europe, work is in progress on regulation of UWB communications, but at the same time research is already well under way under the auspices of the IST programme. The UWB signal in itself exhibits properties similar to spread spectrum signals and it is likely to be protected by low-rate channel coding and/or direct-sequence spreading. Hence the UWB signal is rather resilient against cochannel interference imposed by other systems operating in the same frequency band.
UWB communication constitutes a promising technique, since it has the potential of supporting numerous high-rate users on the move, particularly in areas with high teletraffic density, such as various indoor areas at airports, railway stations, etc. A further substantial benefit of these systems is that, owing to their high carrier frequency, they allow extremely accurate localisation of objects. This property opens a high number of attractive applications.
There is however a high number of technical problems, which have to be overcome, before the large-scale introduction of UWB systems may become a commercial reality.
For this reason the research and development of UWB systems has been hampered in Europe, even though in the USA a number of competing solutions are in the phase of commercialisation. Most of the solutions advocated in the USA are based on the principles of impulse radio, where simple Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) is used for information transmission. The power spectral density of the signal is spread over a wide band, since the pulses used by the PPM scheme for transmitting the information are narrow and they are modulated at a high rate. Naturally, most of the IPR related to these impulse radio systems are owned by American companies, which partially justifies the reluctance of European companies to invest into product development in this field.
The NEWCOM project embarks on creating a European IPR portfolio in the area of UWB systems. A potential approach, which will be explored within the project, is to revisit the rich suite of existing wireless communications techniques in the context of UWB systems. This is perfectly feasible, since well-understood frequency-hopping techniques may be invoked for creating an UWB signal by appropriately frequency-shifting signals, which themselves occupy a narrower band. Additionally, this solution potentially provides a convenient multiple access capability.
Provided that the interference with other systems operating in the same frequency can be controlled, UWB systems have the potential of facilitating competition in the wireless telecommunications area, since license allocation is necessitated. More explicitly, at the time of writing, most wireless systems require operating licenses and these are extremely expensive, as it turned out during the European 3G license auctions. By contrast, in the ISM band no operating licenses are required and this may be exploited by the UWB systems of the near future. Then essentially any service provider has the option of operating a wireless system and offering services to customers on the move. This would significantly increase competition among service provides, which would benefit customers both in Europe and farther afield. Below we summarise a few of the potential research issues to be addressed by the NEWCOM project.
PB.2 Research activities
1 Channel Modelling:
The nature of an UWB signal is rather different from that of other more traditional signals. This implies that commonly available channel models that have typically been used for traditional wireless systems are not necessarily valid anymore. As an example, there is evidence in the open literature that, despite their wide spectral spread, UWB signals are less prone to frequency-selective fading than their narrower-band counterparts, since the transmitted power is low and hence no far-field reflections have to be tolerated. Ultimately, this results in a reduced maximum dispersion and more benign frequency-selective fading. Thus, new channel models have to be obtained and made available to researchers and developers of UWB systems. These channel models may then be used for optimising the system performance. The channel properties also determine the amount of interference imposed on other systems, which is another important reason for identifying appropriate channel models.
2 Common Test Platform:
When research is performed in collaboration between many parties, it is important that the methods used allow for accurate comparisons of different solutions and their performance. This is often a grave problem in collaborative research, where the results seldom can be compared due to the different assumptions and methods used. In the NEWCOM project we intend to overcome this problem by developing tools for performance evaluations, which allow for convenient comparison of the results produced at the various partners organisation involved.
3 Cross-layer Optimisation of Ad-hoc Networks and the UWB Physical Layer:
Due to the low transmitted power and the typically high data rates in UWB systems, the achievable range of communications becomes quite small. Naturally, this allows for mitigating the amount of co-channel interference and hence contributes towards achieving a high teletraffic density. In this scenario, UWB devices have to cooperate in some fashion for the sake of providing radio coverage over larger areas. Ad-hoc networking is a technique where mobile stations form a network without the assistance of the base station and they route messages through the network by hopping them from one station to another in an ad-hoc or uncoordinated fashion. Much research has been carried out on the topic of ad-hoc networking, although without giving cognisance to the physical layer aspects of the system. Hence, it is paramount that the joint optimisation of the UWB physical layer and ad-hoc networks is considered. Amongst other issues, the specific requirements of ad-hoc networking relying on very short range transmissions has to be investigated, since the associated latency aspects have to be addressed. Hence, the NEWCOM NoE intends to design and evaluate the performance of ad-hoc networks in conjunction with UWB devices in order to arrive at attractive systems having a sufficiently wide coverage.
PB.3 Integration
Since UWB communications are based on novel transmission techniques, it is important to integrate this work with all the other areas of NEWCOM research. In this way, all the experience of the partners can be efficiently utilised. This is particularly true, since the ad-hoc network research is closely related to the area “Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks”. Hence, research will be conducted in close collaboration with the latter research area. Efforts will be made also to exploit the benefits of the research on adaptive transceivers and other more conventional transceiver design advances of the NEWCOM NoE.
pROJECT C. Functional Design Aspects of Future Generation Wireless Systems
PC.1 Introduction
This is a transversal project with the aim of investigating different aspects of future wireless systems. While the participants of this project will discuss and propose solutions from a systems perspective, frequent contacts with all the disciplinary research areas will be maintained. In this way, we achieve a situation where system designers are aware of profound scientific landmarks on each relevant research area, and where researchers in the disciplinary fields are informed of system issues that might be of crucial importance for the problem formulations. Moreover, we achieve a so-called vertical integration in this project as well as in the disciplinary research areas.
The demands on future generation wireless systems will critically depend on what services they should provide. We anticipate an evolution of wireless systems that are spectrally efficient and that support high mobility and high data rates with a cost effective coverage. Most likely, this does not mean high data rate services for all, any time and anywhere, but rather in places where it is economically justified. The design of such systems must consider efficient sharing of bandwidth among operators, improvement of spectral efficiency, and integration with other existing systems. A number of important issues will then have to be considered. Some of the most relevant issues are presented below.
References [-]
PC.2 Research activities
1 Access Methods:
The basic strategies by which multiple radio links share (access) a common spectrum (multiple-access/multiplexing/duplexing) will continue to be key aspects also for future wireless systems. Important aspects to consider in the design of future access methods include the possibility to adapt access parameters to varying traffic and channel conditions. Thus, asymmetry and channel adaptivity are issues of primary concern. Methods for combining different access methods to obtain efficient use of the available radio resources should be addressed in terms of both performance and implementation complexity. Also, frequency reuse patterns and sharing of the same frequency band among many operators must be addressed in this context. As the feasibility and efficiency of different access schemes is directly related to the availability of corresponding advanced signal processing algorithms, interaction with the disciplinary research area “Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems” is crucial, but interaction with the disciplinary research area “Mobility, QoS, security and resource management in wireless networks” would also be valuable for the exchange of system and performance aspects.
2 Channel Adaptivity:
Adaptation of transmission parameters to varying radio channel conditions is important for efficient utilisation of the available radio resources. This includes, for example, power control, rate control, and channel-dependent scheduling. Efficient support for such issues has a direct impact on the design of several system functions. Several issues need to be investigated, some of which are listed below.
The time-frequency granularity of the system has to be matched to the expected channel time-frequency selectivity.
The properties of different duplex schemes in combination with channel adaptivity need to be investigated.
The system must provide functionality for feedback of channel state information and prediction of channel conditions to allow for accurate adaptation of transmission parameters and scheduling schemes.
The system must allow scheduling among interfering sectors to minimise interference. To obtain a high efficiency, different scheduling criteria must be evaluated.
Different schemes to fulfil QoS requirements need to be addressed, particularly with respect to delay-sensitive traffic. These issues need to be addressed in conjunction with the item Access Methods described above to obtain an efficient solution.
Interaction with the disciplinary research area “Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems”, and the disciplinary research area “Propagation, channel measurements and modelling” is obviously critical for the design of efficient schemes for channel adaptivity.
3 Advanced Antenna Configuration:
The use of advanced antenna configurations will play an important role in future wireless systems to attain low interference levels and to increase capacity. Issues that have to be studied include:
The use of multiple transmit and receive antennas in the mobile terminals.
The use of multiple transmit and receive antennas at the cell site.
Simultaneous transmission and reception of signals at separately located antennas, e.g., at multiple cell sites.
Key questions include how such advanced antenna solutions should be efficiently used in different scenarios and to what extent the solutions can be adapted to different radio environments and traffic scenarios. The complexity of advanced antennas solutions, and especially the trade-off between performance and complexity, needs to be investigated. Interaction with the disciplinary research area “Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems”, particularly the directions of multi-user receivers/transmitters, MIMO, and beam-forming systems will be essential to exchange target scenarios and limits of performance.
4 Radio-Network Structures:
The structure and organisation of future radio networks is of crucial importance to obtain high system efficiency. Issues like sectorisation and relaying will then be of significant importance. Due to obvious upper limitations in terms of transmit power, especially at the terminal side; the support for very high data rates implies a classical link-budget problem. Relaying concepts, with secondary access points, or “relays” forwarding data from a primary access point (the “base station”) to mobile terminals and vice versa, is a tool that could, potentially, offer a solution to the link-budget problem. Furthermore, more advanced relaying functionalities, such as “co-operative relaying”, can provide additional benefits in terms of improved system capacity and service quality. Interaction with the disciplinary research areas “Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems”, and “Propagation, channel measurements and modelling” is important to make these groups aware of desired system structures and requirements.
5 Compatibility:
Future wireless networks will inevitably be heterogeneous. Terminals designed for wide area coverage must also be able to work in environments supported by e.g. different WLAN standards and Bluetooth. It is also of utmost importance to support backward compatibility. For a long time, future wireless systems will have to co-exist within diversified country specific operational service patterns, with third generation systems like WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-CDMA and, in many cases, also with second generation systems, such as GSM/GPRS/EDGE, and IS-95. There are two ways to address this problem: the creation of multi-mode, multi-standard, multi-frequency, multi-function transceiver terminals, or the development of communication means for operating over several frequency bands, and with the highest flexibility and scalability, based on a common hardware platform. Thus, the evolution calls for terminals with reconfiguration features. One issue will be to investigate to what extent transmitter and receiver features can be reused or reconfigured to support different standards and what architectures are most suitable in this regard. Another issue is to investigate novel solutions such as canonical description languages for open architecture transceivers. Interaction with the disciplinary area “Analysis, design, and implementation of baseband architectures and circuits” would be of mutual benefit to address different scenarios and requirements.
6 Reference Scenarios:
Although it is virtually impossible to predict what will be the driving force of future wireless systems, it is important to define reference scenarios that address the user perspective, the service perspective, and the terminal perspective respectively. It is also important to investigate the implications of such reference scenarios for system design.
PC.3 Integration
Since the current project is transversal, the value of integration covers the research topics presented above as well as all the other disciplinary research areas. We thus obtain not only an exchange of ideas and results on a profound scientific level, but also on a high system level. This will lead to a so called vertical integration in all research activities: while system designers will be aware of the state of the art of each particular disciplinary research area, researchers solving specific problems will always bear in mind the system aspects. Moreover, regarding this particular research topic, the integration of academic research and industry experience will be of particular importance to obtain future systems which are both high performing and cost effective. Furthermore, bringing groups with different backgrounds and experience together will shed light on the research issues from many angles, something that is essential to obtain well working systems.
project D. Reconfigurable Radio for Interoperable Transceivers
PD.1 Introduction
Future 4G wireless communication systems will take a truly user-centric approach to support a wide variety of services over a wide variety of networks in a transparent way. These 4G systems will integrate different air interfaces on a common IP-based platform to optimally complement each other for different service requirements, cell ranges and radio environments. They will feature both standardised and enhanced versions of existing air interfaces as well as totally new air interfaces. To complement each other in an optimum way, the different air interfaces can be organised in a layered structure [], consisting of a distribution access layer, a cellular access layer, and a hot spot access layer. The distribution layer comprises forthcoming Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), and multimedia satellite systems to support large cells, full mobility and global access, mainly for broadcast services. The cellular layer contains 2G and 3G cellular radio systems to support full coverage, full mobility, and global roaming for circuit- and packet-switched multimedia services. The hot spot layer comprises WLAN-type systems, like HyperLAN2 and IEEE 802.11, to support local coverage, local mobility, and global roaming for very high data rate services. The interworking of the different air interfaces is ensured by horizontal handover within an access layer and, especially, by vertical handover between different access layers.
To enable this vision of future 4G wireless communications systems, there is clearly a need for a reconfigurable terminal that integrates as many communication modes as possible to support existing and future standards. Flexible switching within one mode (intra-mode switching) and between the modes (inter-mode switching) should be triggered by varying channel conditions on one hand, and by changing user requirements on the other hand.
As a deep penetration of the wireless terminal is nowadays aimed in the telecommunication market, new challenges appear in terms of minimising the terminal cost, size and power consumption, while at the same time maximising the adaptivity to the communication conditions. In the recent past, most of research efforts have been devoted to reconfigurable radio under the auspices of “Software-Defined Radio” [,]. However, quite often, these research works have focused on specific problems in specific areas and have failed to take a global system approach. With this project, we aim to take a global system perspective to enable leading-edge solutions for the integration of reconfigurable radio terminals. We aim to analyse the functional behaviour of the system for different user scenarios by setting up models for the entire transmission chain, including the channel and the front-ends. Consequently, we aim to develop innovative algorithms and architectures that couple excellent communication performance and flexibility to attractive silicon solutions.
The design of a flexible radio for future 4G systems poses a lot of challenges that fall apart into Physical layer issues on the one hand, and higher layer issues, on the other hand. The PHY layer issues are related to the baseband signal processing and the RF front-end. The higher layer issues decompose into Data Link Control (DLC) layer (layer 2) issues and Network layer (layer 3) issues.
PD.2 Research activities
1 Flexibility in Baseband Digital Signal Processing
The conventional approach to the design of a baseband architecture supporting multiple radio access and air interface schemes is the provision of multiple radio transceivers, each dedicated to an individual standard and optimised for the standard’s requirements. This approach is becoming increasingly infeasible and economically unacceptable because the complexity of the baseband grows and the number of standards expands. A more efficient approach towards this design is to architect a software-reconfigurable baseband. User terminals can thus easily be adapted to the best-suited radio access scheme according to software requests issued by a configuration manager, while dynamically reconfigurable base stations can share its capacity between different standards based on the temporarily changing number and types of users in a certain area.
2 Flexibility in RF Front-end
A flexible RF front-end should ideally accept an infinite range of carrier frequencies, possess a flexible bandwidth, and deal with a wide variety of operational conditions, e.g., be able to transmit/receive signals with a wide range of power levels. Besides, multiple antennas will be a key feature of future air interfaces, and will bring additional constraints on the RF front end.
When multiple antennas will be employed at the user terminal, a high degree of integration will become even more than today a determining factor for the success of these techniques. Small size, low cost and low power consumption have already for years been key performance aspects, and their importance will only increase in multiple-antenna systems. Also packaging will become an issue, more specifically the size and position of the multiple antennas.
PD.3 Integration
As the reconfigurable radio is interdisciplinary in itself, the integration of several competences will be the key point towards our success. Flexibility will be aimed with respect to the channel propagation conditions and user requirements. Several networks will be made accessible from a single terminal. In that respect, a deep knowledge of the main wireless standards (Hyperlan, 3GPP...) as well as the involved communication techniques and their extensions is required. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the techniques is needed to assess their possible combination.

PROJECT E. Cross Layer Optimisation
PE.1 Introduction
The principle of layering, i.e., creating a functionality by using ‘services’ of functionalities at a lower layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer architecture with the aid of standardised interfaces at the interconnection of the layers, has been a key factor in the success of modern communication networks. Given a set of system requirements, researchers and developers benefit from the convenience of isolating and solving problems within a particular OSI layer without having to give cognisance to other OSI layers.
However, the OSI architecture was designed before the prevalence of wireless systems and hence numerous functions of these systems, such as, for example, handovers, do not conveniently fit into the OSI mould. Further recent developments have made it increasingly important to reconsider the subdivision introduced by traditional layering in the field of telecommunications:
The communication channels and traffic patterns in mobile and ad-hoc networks are more unpredictable than in traditional fixed networks. These problems may only be efficiently mitigated, if cross-layer optimisation is considered, which requires the prompt and efficient exchange of information amongst several OSI layers.
New multimedia services introduce a wider range of QoS requirements than those necessitated in traditional networks.
The level of sophistication within single OSI layers has reached a level where further capacity increase demands joint optimisation of the functionalities of several layers that have traditionally been treated independently.
The above three factors and their combinations have motivated cross-layer research activities spanning conventional system subdivisions. The complexity of this novel research topic is related to its multi-disciplinary nature, involving several research areas such as adaptive coding and modulation, channel modelling, traffic modelling, queuing theory and optimisation theory. As a consequence of the high number of complex functionalities found in a modern communication network, there is a high variety of possibilities for cross-layer optimisation. Examples of recent activities in these fields are:
Combined source-channel coding.
PHY-MAC-SERVICE layer dialogue.
Cross-layer optimisation in ad-hoc networks.
Joint optimisation of the transceiver and smart antenna algorithms.

PE.2 Research activities
1 Multiuser Diversity Enhancement.
In an environment where a single transmitter communicates with many mobile receivers, multiuser diversity may be achieved, which holds the promise of an increased area spectral efficiency, expressed either in Erlangs or in data rate per MHz per square km. If the transmitter has explicit knowledge concerning each receiver's channel quality and a packet-based transmission protocol is used, a "smart" channel-quality aware scheduling algorithm transmits data packets only to the users benefiting from "good" channel conditions. In picocells typically experiencing slow fading or in macrocells exhibiting only modest scattering around the transmitter, it can be shown that employing multiple antennas along with intelligent signal processing at the transmitter increases multiuser diversity by "randomising" the channel qualities of the various users. This is a novel design paradigm, which is different from conventional approaches where one attempts to exploit diversity in order to average over the fading process for a single link channel. This approach necessitates a joint optimisation of the algorithms traditionally found in Layer 1 – benefiting from channel quality estimation and feedback, beamforming, adaptive multicarrier transmissions both with and without spreading - and Layer 2 exploiting channel-quality aware scheduling.
2 Cross-layer Information Exchange for AchievingOptimised Performance and Routing
Conventional protocol stacks relying on independent operation of the different layers are incapable of operating at a high efficiency in ad-hoc networks supporting multimedia applications and services. In this new situation, it is necessary that the various protocol entities reveal information to each other that has traditionally been hidden. Several general questions arise with respect to this cross-layer information exchange, some of which are exemplified below and will be addressed by the NEWCOM NoE:
Identification of most important parameters that has to be exchanged between the layers.
Identification of relevant metrics for capturing the associated dependencies between adjacent layers, mainly Layers 1, 2 and 3. These metrics have to be exchanged amongst the layers and used by them to adaptively/optimally obey the network dynamics.
Management of information flow between layers.
Investigation of joint simulation methodologies, which tend to be time-driven for the physical layer, but event-driven for higher layers.
Identifying degrees of freedom and pertinent criteria for system optimisation. For example, in some applications the bit error rate, in others the frame error rate, the throughput or the system delay constitute the most pertinent constraint.
Optimising MAC protocols under time-varying PHY layer constraints and QoS requirements.
Potential upgrade of the protocol stack with a unified content-aware multimedia radio link protocol optimising overhead requirements with respect to the multimedia type, contents, and packetisation scheme
Using channel state information for optimising the Radio Link Control (RLC), Radio Resource Management (RRM) and routing protocols, in particular for ad-hoc networks and other next-generation networks.
3 Subsystem Design Integration.
A topic closely related to cross-layer optimisation is the joint design of sub-systems in the implementation of the wireless physical layer, such as the antenna, the RF front-end, ADC/DAC and various other DSP algorithms.
PE.3 Integration
The topic of cross-layer optimisation is by definition interdisciplinary. This means that the importance of integrating research from different groups is particularly paramount. The NEWCOM participants have demonstrated over the years their ability to substantially contribute in all the associated fields ranging from multimedia services, MAC protocols, physical layer and implementation aspects.

B4.3 Activities to spread excellence
B4.3.1 Introduction
Integration and spreading the excellence activities are intimately related, since the successful realisation of the former (integration) leads to the latter (spreading excellence) as a natural consequence, at least if we interpret the spreading of excellence inside the network members. Spreading excellence, however, also means letting the excellence in research and teaching overflow the strict network boundaries, and enrich the European environment outside the network. In this document, we describe the main activities planned by NEWCOM in order to spread the excellence beyond the network members.
We will distinguish between activities to spread excellence related to research from those related to teaching.
B4.3.2 Spreading research excellence
As a result of the integration, the network will generate research papers jointly co-authored by researchers belonging to NEWCOM Departments.
The impact of papers and their efficacy in spreading excellence strictly depend on the conferences proceedings and journals in which they are published. A policy of publishing the results in the major international conference and journals will be promoted by NEWCOM, through formal recognition by the Scientific Committee and Advisory Board of the best papers published by NEWCOM researchers (the NEWCOM Best Paper Award). The papers and conference presentations will be made publicly available in the NEWCOM web site, and NEWCOM sponsorship at large will be acknowledged in papers and conference slides. This will lead to the dissemination of research results within the network members and to the outside world. A common slide layout for the conference presentation of results obtained through NEWCOM research activities will be prepared and used by NEWCOM researchers and PhD students. This will contribute to the visibility and recognition of the network. NEWCOM researchers will be actively involved in the organisation of international conferences and workshops, possibly co-sponsored by the network.
A few significant examples are:
The Third International Symposium on Turbo Codes and related Topics??????, to be held in Brest in 2003, Chairman Claude Berrou
The 2004 International Zurich Seminar on Communications, to be held in Zurich in 2004, Co’Chairmen Hans’Andrea Loeliger and Helmut Boelcskei
The 2004 IEEE Communications Theory Workshop, to be held in Capri in 2004, with Sergio Benedetto as general Chairman
The 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2004), to be held in Paris in 2004, with Hikmet Sari as Technical Committee Chairman
The 2005 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2005), to be held in Stockolm, Co-chairmen Arne Svensson and Erik Stroem
The 2005 IEEE sponsored International Symposium on Turbo Codes and Iterative Techniques, to be held in Munich, Germany in Fall 2005, Co-chairmen Joachim Hagenauer and Claude Berrou.
The 2006 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2006), to be held in Istanbul in 2006, with Erdal Panayirci as General Technical Chairman.
NEWCOM Departments and Projects will also be involved in the preparation of sessions in international conferences, and of special issues in international journals, like for example the IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications and others. The organization of new European conferences or workshops will be figured for novel specific research areas that are not yet adequately covered by existing symposia.
Periodically, the network will organise dissemination days, in which representatives of industries (inside and outside NEWCOM) will be invited to listen and discuss presentations made by NEWCOM researchers on recent results. These presentations will also be organised at some company premises.
PhD and post-doc positions will be offered by NEWCOM also to students and researchers coming from institutions not belonging to the network. Coordination with the opportunities offered by Marie Curie Actions will be undertaken. In particular, this will involve the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships, which have the purpose of giving EU researchers the financial support to undertake advanced training through research, or to acquire complementary skills at European organisations most suited to their professional needs.
The shared SW platform and HW testbed described in Section B4.1 will be made available to the European Scientific community under suitable agreements.
NEWCOM members will keep periodic contacts with complementary NoEs, and will explore the possibility of preparing Integrated Projects and STREP's under consortia that include also participants outside the network.
NEWCOM will take particular care in its patent policy (see Section B4.4 and B7). The most promising and innovative research results will be patented (joint patenting will be promoted), and the network members will be encouraged to exploit them also through new companies start-up. Opportunities offered in this respect by NEWCOM members will be used, such as, for example, the start-up incubator of Politecnico di Torino (I3P, a NEWCOM member), the favourable environment of Sophia Antipolis, etc. Also in this case, start-ups founded by researchers of different NEWCOM members will be encouraged by the network.
Visiting opportunities will be also offered to students and young researchers coming from extra-European countries, like Asian and African countries. An example concerns the Indian students of the Indian Institutes of Technology, who have to spend a period of 3 months in the summer to do a project. These are usually bright students (entering an Indian Institute of Technology is a tough process), who can contribute to NEWCOM research programs, and be possibly stimulated to join European universities to undertake a PhD program. Initiatives of this kind can help redirecting in part the flow of good students who leave their poorer countries for a graduate program in US universities toward Europe. Another example are the International Graduate Programs at several participating Universities which attract many students from the Near and Far East which have to do projects to be offered for them by NEWCOM.
An important tool for excellence spreading will be the NEWCOM web site described in Section B4.1. In it, NEWCOM will publish a Newsletter that will list the various opportunities offered by NEWCOM Departments and Projects, in terms of:
Available Master and PhD theses subjects
Post-doc opportunities for coordinated training
Industry young employees training opportunities
Documents stemming from NEWCOM activities (meetings, highlights, publications, PhD theses, etc.)
Tutorials within NEWCOM
Summer schools schedule
Related conferences dates.
The foundation of the NEWCOM online journal, acting as a periodic quick publication bulletin, will be another important source of knowledge spreading. This journal can possibly be transmuted in the long run into an on-line European Journal on Wireless Communications (EJWC) with rigorous peer review. Currently there is no truly European scientific publication in this field with a large circulation, and the time may actually be right to found a traditional paper journal (with traditional subscription) with that aim. The on-line journal, with possibly short and fast scientific communications might turn out to be a fundamental tool to disseminate information, and the organisation and management of it will surely foster integration within the network. Initially, the bulletin will simply have the function of hosting “free” contributions by the nodes like the existing ArXiv File server in mathematics and physics. However a special section subject to review will be soon organised, and will act as the initial “seed” of the EJWC. Many participants into the network have a long-standing experience of editorial management of scientific journals at the highest level, so the competence to carry out successfully such an initiative already exists. One could also approach existing European Journals which are already partly funded by the EU like AEI or Signal Processing in order to seek cooperation.
In addition, the scientific community also lacks a European scientific Society in the field. Many national Societies exist in this respect, and some of them are also experiencing financial troubles due to the decrease of subscribers. NEWCOM believes that establishing a truly continental Society (right after the foundation of the European journal) may revive interest into the issue of scientific association at large. In the most optimistic scenario, the creation of a European Society of Wireless Communications (ESWC) might also be coordinated with similar initiatives, possibly stemming out of parallel associations or NoEs, to arrive at a broader European Society of Communications. It may be argued that Communication Society of IEEE is already an international association operating successfully in the field. It is, however, still US-biased, so as to have a strong European counterpart to cooperate with, rather than competing, can have a positive, equilibrating effect. Although currently not an urgent issue, it is believed that after several years of NEWCOM the desire for such a Society will naturally evolve.
A last important activity consists in the participation to standardisation committees (or similar organisations). As an example, NEWCOM members have already contributed to UMTS, MPEG, JPEG2000 and DVB-S2 standards, and NEWCOM will adhere to the Wireless World Research Forum, to the 4Gmobile Forum, and to the Software Defined Radio Forum.
B4.3.3 Spreading excellence through teaching
The integration activities directed toward teaching and described in Section B4.1 will also involve institutions outside NEWCOM. This concerns the PhD courses, whose broadcasting will be offered to European Universities under some sort of agreement. This will be beneficial for all European universities, since it will offer to their graduate students a bouquet of highly specialised courses taught by the some of the best researchers-professors in the wireless communications field. The net effect will be that of significantly shortening the path and effort required for a PhD student to acquire a sufficient knowledge of a research field allowing a mature choice of the PhD thesis subject.
The strengthening of PhD programs induced by NEWCOM integration onto the member universities will also increase their capacity to attract good graduate students from outside Europe, and to prevent their best European students from emigrating to US universities.
A specific activity directed to industries (inside and outside NEWCOM) will be the continuing and training education program. To help coordinating this activity, NEWCOM Executive Committee will look for an experienced partner, such as for example CEI (Continuing Education Institute - Europe - www.cei.se/index.htm), a very active European company operating since 1980 in continuing education on several advanced technology subjects, including wireless communications and signal processing.
NEWCOM will also offer time-limited NEWCOM chairs to international research leaders to prepare and teach courses in topics not yet covered by existing courses and characterised by the strong importance and novelty of the subject not sufficiently mature inside network members.
Beyond the research and teaching activities in the scientific field of wireless communications, NEWCOM will explore the possibilities of creating a new Department on economical and social impact of the wireless technology. Some steps in this direction have already been done by contacting suitable departments and people in the participating institutions, such as Politecnico di Torino and University of Surrey.

B4.4 Management Activities
B4.4.1 Introduction
The effective management of NEWCOM relies heavily on frequent and unencumbered communication between the members of the network, as well as tight coordination of network activities. In order that all partners have easy access to any information that may be useful, the establishment of a Network Office is foreseen. The responsibilities of the Network Office are described in more detail in Section B.7, but a highlight of its main activities and their impact on integration is provided below.
In addition, the NEWCOM flow-chart of decision-making procedures has been carefully planned, namely a detailed description of the steps necessary in order to propose, approve and realise any major activity, be it research (as in the Departments and Projects) or otherwise (integration, dissemination, changes of managerial structure, changes in the network structure, etc.). Section B7 outlines such procedures at length; here, suffice it to say that the network envisions the establishment of a short “start-up” phase, whereby major initial key decisions will be undertaken (such as the expedited setting up of the required infrastructure, initial disbursement of seed funds, election of leadership, Directors, Heads, Boards, etc.), to be followed by the regular periodic phase of internal proposal preparation, evaluation, decision making and funding.
The Handbook (see below) will also be assembled in this “start-up” phase, with detailed instructions to all the parties involved with respect to procedures, allowable costs, critical timeline of events, flow of information and responsibilities, required and suggested initiatives, and the like. For example, the Handbook will describe the process whereby a Department Head collects partner information for constructing the funding request for that Department in the specific funding period, the submission of this request (along with the others) via the Network Office to the Scientific Committee, the evaluation and ranking process of the latter (via consultation with the Advisory Board), the internal process for approval/disapproval/modification decision, its flow back to the Head and from there to the constituent parties, the execution and monitoring requirements, and so on. Similar procedures will be described for setting up energy- and funding-consuming activities like summer courses, workshops, extended visits and the like.
As mentioned, the Network Office (NO) plays the key managerial role and thus appears as a central coordinating “node” in many areas of the Network operation. Specific activities of the governing bodies of the network are outlined below.
B4.4.2 Management of the scientific activities
The NEWCOM Director manages the scientific and administrative progress of the project. He chairs the Scientific Committee and the Executive Board and acts as an interface to the Advisory Board. He also holds the project responsibilities toward the European Commission.
The Scientific Committee meets physically at least once a year. It approves, with the Advisory Board, the annual JPA.
The Executive Board has responsibility for Knowledge Management, IPR exploitation, Integration and Spreading of Excellence activities, together with knowledge management and exploitation of results.
The Department/Project heads implement and monitor the scientific activity in their department/project. They report regularly to the Scientific Committee on progress towards deadlines and milestones in the work packages under their jurisdiction.
B4.4.2.1 Monitoring of the JPA
The NEWCOM Director and the Executive Board will be responsible for executing the decisions of the Scientific Committee, and for supervising and monitoring the life of the network. They will have periodic consultations with the Department/Project Heads for possible readdressing of the various activities.
B4.4.2.3 Development of Network coherence
The Scientific Committee closely monitors the development of the “critical mass” of activities and partners crucial to the long-term sustainability of the network. The Committee is responsible for enhancing network membership as appropriate, and removing network members should that be necessary
B4.4.2.4 Knowledge and IPR Management and exploitation
Knowledge management within the NEWCOM network involves the gathering, organisation, analysis, refining and sharing of the knowledge of the partners in terms of resources, documents, and the key competencies of staff. The NEWCOM project will support knowledge management through the use of collaborative tools for knowledge sharing, and analysis of the relationships between content, people and activities into a knowledge map for the network. A member of the Executive Board will be responsible for knowledge and IPR management and exploitation within NEWCOM. This activity will take the form of support and consultancy on matters like idea evaluation, patent screening, business plan preparation, seed fund raising, etc. The Executive Board member will drive this activity with the support of those NEWCOM partners (such as I3P) with significant experience in the area, and the coordination of the Network Office.
B4.4.3 Management of the administrative activities
The Operations Director controls the administration of the Network and manages the Network Office. He reports regularly to the NEWCOM Director on the management of the network, monitoring and updating the Management work packages in the JPA.
Each Partner Local Administrator monitors the financial and reporting related to the activities in which their organisation is involved.
B4.4.3.1 Establishment of the NO
The Network Office will be established within the Istituto Superiore Mario Boella in order to support the activities of the entire network in a centralised and effectively coordinated way. This activity involves the physical setting up of the office, communications infrastructure, and recruitment of staff and training on the particular features and operational needs of the Network. The NO will be directed by the NEWCOM Operations Director, an employee of Istituto Mario Boella with wide experience in the management of large National and European Projects.
B4.4.3.2 Supporting the Joint Programme of Activities and the Network as a whole
The Operations Director and the NO will support the JPA, ensuring that milestones are accomplished on time and troubleshooting potential problems. It will provide administrative and project management support to the Scientific Committee, the Advisory Board, the Executive Board, and the NEWCOM Director. It will also assist the Administrative Officers in the partner institutions in the completion of their administrative and reporting responsibilities. To this end, the NEWCOM Handbook mentioned above for the efficient management of the project will be prepared, and a short course delivered via teleconferencing on how to use it.
B4.4.3.3 Organisation of meetings, seminars and conferences
The Operations Director and the NO will support the regular meetings of the Scientific Committee, Executive and Advisory Boards, and will help in organising NEWCOM international conferences and seminars as required.
B4.4.3.4 Reporting within the Network and to the Commission
The Operations Director and the NO will support the integration of the activities of the network by ensuring the flow of information amongst the various network partners. This involves the collection of reports from partners and Coordinators and the collation and dissemination of these reports within the Network and, where relevant, to the European Commission. It will also be the reciprocal point of communication.
B4.4.5 Activities of the Advisory Board
The Advisory Board evaluates the JPA and the annual activity reports and makes recommendations for the continuous improvement of the network. It also acts as the Award Committee to choose among candidates for the NEWCOM best paper award. The Board meets physically on an annual basis and is in regular contact with the network throughout the year through the NEWCOM Director. The Advisory Board provides an independent external opinion on the progress of the development of the Network, the appropriateness and quality of the research being undertaken and research planned, and on the general health of the network as a whole.

.
B5. Description of the network and the excellence of the participants

The Network of Excellence NEWCOM associates 54 partners from 18 countries, for a total of about 352 researchers and 263 PhD students. All in all, 40 universities or public institutes and 14 private companies are involved in this ambitious consortium. A majority of the worldwide renown European researchers in the field of digital communications – physical layers and medium access control – have expressed their wish to collaborate inside NEWCOM, according to the concept of NoE initiated by the European Commission.
NEWCOM partners are in the heart of innovation for signal processing in telecommunications, both at theoretical and implementation level. Academic partners have a wide experience of research contracts with European (and beyond) telecommunications industries, and both academic and industrial partners have contributed to several standards, like 3G cellular systems, Digital Video Broadcasting by Satellite and Terrestrial, Digital Audio Broadcasting.
NEWCOM partners also have contributed to the dissemination of innovative knowledge by teaching continuing education courses in cooperation with European organizations like CEI, a private Swedish company organising courses of continuing education in Europe, or extension schools in US universities, and tutorial speeches in major conferences.
Several NEWCOM partners have set up a structure devoted to technology transfer and SME incubation, with the successful launching of spin-offs. One if such structures, the I3P incubator of Politecnico di Torino, is part of NEWCOM.
The list of partners shown below demonstrates convincingly that the network has succeeded in merging research excellence and critical mass in several critical areas of wireless communications. The guiding spirit in assembling the team of experts in this scientific area has been to invite demonstrated and provable excellence, judged by truly international standards. To wit, we note that the consortium currently counts 18 Fellows of the IEEE: This amounts to more than 40% of the number of Principal Investigators of research institutions involved in NEWCOM, an exceptional number if one notes that the title of IEEE Fellow has been bestowed to less than 2% of the world’s 380,000 IEEE members so far. The network also includes multiple IEEE Best Paper Awards, 7 IEEE Distinguished Lecturers, Armstrong Awards, 2000 IEEE Millennium Medals, a 2003 IEEE A. Graham Bell Medal, a 2003 IEEE R. Hamming Medal co-recipient, and numerous national and European awards, like for example Italgas European Research Prize 1998. This constitutes proof positive that European-based scientific and technological achievement in the field of telecommunications (as in other fields, also) stands on a very comparable level with the USA and Japan, and the present NoE aspires to contribute to this worldwide pre-eminence by maintaining, continuing and enhancing such a tradition of excellence in the foreseeable future.
An indirect, strong indication of NEWCOM excellence is constituted by the composition of the Advisory Board (see also Section B7), made by five greatly esteemed researchers who have made key contributions to the field (Fumiyuki Adachi, David G. Forney, Jr., James E. Massey, Andrew J. Viterbi, and Robert Gallager, whose CVs are enclosed at the end of this section). Based on reading a draft version of the proposal, and list of partners, all of them have accepted with enthusiasm to be part of the Board.

NEWCOM partners are listed in Table 1, each with the name of the organization, the name of the group leader, the number of researchers and PhD students, the acronym and country, and finally the domains of interest among the seven NEWCOM Departments:
Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems
MIMO Radio channel modeling for design optimisation and performance assessment of next generation communication systems
Design, modeling and experimental characterization of RF and microwave devices and subsystems
Analysis, design and implementation of digital architectures and circuits
Source coding and reliable delivery of multimedia contents
Protocols and architectures, and traffic modeling for reconfigurable/adaptive wireless networks
QoS provision in wireless networks: mobility, security and radio resource management.


NResearch groupGroup leader# Res.# PhDAcronym
(country)Domains of interest11Instituto Superiore Mario BoellaProf. Sergio Benedetto
benedetto@polito.it102ISMB
(Italy)1, 6, 72
22
2National and Kapodistrian University of Athens/Institute of Accelerating Systems and ApplicationsProf. Andreas Polydoros
apolydor@cc.uoa.gr84NCUA
(Greece)1, 2, 3, 433University of Thessaly.Prof. Leandros Tassioulas
leandros@isr.umd.edu65UoT
(Greece)2, 744IntracomDr. Nikos Pronios
npro@intracom.gr10Intracom
(Greece)1,2,355TechnionProf. Shlomo Shamai
sshlomo@ee.technion.ac.il43TECHNION
(Israel)1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 766Bilkent UniversityProf. Erdal Arikan
arikan@ee.bilkent.edu.tr813BILKENT
(Turkey)1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 777ISIK UniversityProf. Erdal Panayirci
eepanay@isikun.edu.tr66ISIK
(Turkey)1, 2 ,3, 588Universitat Politècnica de CatalunyaProf. Ramon Agusti
 HYPERLINK mailto:ramon@tsc.upc.es ramon@tsc.upc.es106UPC
(Spain)1, 2, 6, 799Telecommunications Technological Centre of CataloniaDr. Carles Antón-Haro
 HYPERLINK mailto:carles.anton@cttc.es carles.anton@cttc.es62CTTC
(Spain)1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7110Universitat Pompeu FabraProf. Joan Vinyes
joan.vinyes@tecn.upf.es42UPF
(Spain)1,5, 6, 7111TelefónicaIng. Luis Cucala Garcia
 HYPERLINK mailto:lcucala@tid.es lcucala@tid.es2TELEFONICA
(Spain)1, 6, 7112University of Catania.
Prof. Sergio Palazzo
sergio.palazzo@diit.unict.it64UoC
(Italy)5, 6, 7113University of Pisa
Prof. Umberto Mengali
 HYPERLINK mailto:u.mengali@iet.unipi.it u.mengali@iet.unipi.it85UoP
(Italy)1, 4114Politecnico di Torino - CERCOMProf. Gabriella Olmo
 HYPERLINK mailto:olmo@polito.it olmo@polito.it2916CERCOM
(Italy)1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7115I3P PolitecnicoProf. Vincenzo Pozzolo
vincenzo.pozzolo@polito.it30I3P
(Italy)116ST MicroelectronicsIng. Pio Quarticelli
 HYPERLINK mailto:pio.quarticelli@st.com pio.quarticelli@st.com40STM
(Italy)1, 3, 4, 6117Groupe des Ecoles de Télécommunications (GET)Prof. Claude Berrou
claude.berrou@enst-bretagne.fr2849GET
(France)1, 2, 4, 5, 7118SUPELECProf. Hikmet Sari
hikmet.sari@supelec.fr65SUPELEC
(France)1, 2, 4119Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)Prof. Pierre Duhamel
pierre.duhamel@lss.supelec.fr1014CNRS
(France)1, 2, 4220Cooperative Lab. “Telecommunications for Space and Aeronautics” (TeSA)Prof. Marie-L. Boucheret
 HYPERLINK mailto:bouchere@enst.fr bouchere@enst.fr108TeSA
(France)1, 2, 7221France TélécomDr. Jean-Claude Carlach
 HYPERLINK "mailto:jeanclaude.carlach@rd.francetelecom" jeanclaude.carlach@rd.francetelecom.
com66FRANCET
(France)1, 2, 7222Philips FranceIng. Bernard Badefort
bernard.badefort@philips.com30PHILIPS
(France)1,2,3,4223Thales CommunicationsDr. Cedric Demeure
cedric.demeure@fr.thalesgroup.com34THALES
(France)1, 2, 4, 5
24Motorola Labs - FranceDr. Marc de Courville
marc.de.courville@crm.mot.com23MOTOROLA
(France)
1, 2, 7225TurboConceptIng. Nathalie Brengarth
nathalie.brengarth@turboconcept.com21TURBOCPT
(France)1, 2, 4226Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyProf.Hans-Andrea Loeliger
loeliger@isi.ee.ethz.ch1011ETH
(Switzerland)1, 2, 4227ElektrobitAndreas Stucki
andreas.stucki@elektrobit.ch20EB
(Switzerland)1, 2228Munich University of Technology, Institute of Communications Engeneering.Prof. Joachim Hagenauer
hagenauer@ei.tum.de76LNT-TUM
(Germany)1, 2, 4, 5, 6229RWTH of AachenProf. Heinrich Meyr
meyr@ert.rwth-aachen.de86TUA
(Germany)1, 2, 4, 7330University of Erlangen-NurembergProf. Johannes Huber
huber@nt.e-technik.uni-erlangen.de54UEN
(Germany)1, 2, 7331German Aerospace Center - DLRDr. Stefan Kaiser
stefan.kaiser@dlr.de50DLR
(Germany)1, 2, 7332IMST GmbHIng. Birgit Kull
 HYPERLINK mailto:kull@imst.de kull@imst.de21IMST
(Germany)1, 7333VodafoneIng. Valerio Zingarelli
valerio.zingarelli@vodafone.com40Vodafone
(Germany)6, 7334Vienna Telecommunications Research CentreDr. Ing. Ralf R. Müller
mueller@ftw.at95FTW
(Austria)1, 2, 7335Budapest University
 Prof. Laszlo Pap
papl@hit.bme.hu
46 BUDAPEST
(Hungary)1, 6, 7336Poznan University of Technology
Prof. Krzysztof Wesolowski
wesolows@et.put.poznan.pl55PUT
(Poland)1, 2, 7337Ghent University.
Prof. Marc Moeneclaey
mm@telin.rug.ac.be64GU
(Belgium)1, 6, 7338Université Catholique de LouvainProf. Luc Vandendorpe
vandendorpe@tele.ucl.ac.be46UCL
(Belgium)1, 2, 7339IMECDr. Frederik Petré
petre@imec.be104IMEC
(Belgium)1, 4, 7440European Space AgencyDr. Riccardo De Gaudenzi
rdegaude@xrsun0.estec.esa.nl61ESA
(the Netherlands)1, 2,5, 7441Aalborg University
Prof. Bernard H. Fleury
bfl@cpk.auc.dk66AU
(Denmark)1, 2, 5442Chalmers University of Technology
Dr. Erik Ström
erik.strom@s2.chalmers.se511Chalmers
(Sweden)1, 3443Karlstad University
Prof. Anna Brunström
annab@kau.se43KU
(Sweden)6, 7444Uppsala University
Prof. Anders Ahlén
anders.ahlen@signal.uu.se56UU
(Sweden)1, 2, 3, 7445Lund UniversityProf. Andreas F. Molisch
andreas.molisch@es.lth.se1015LU
(Sweden)1, 2, 4446EricssonDr. Erik Dahlman
erik.dahlman@era.ericsson.se30ERICSSON
(Sweden)1, 2, 7447University of Oulu
Prof. Savo Glisic
savo@ee.oulu.fi23UoO
(Finland)1, 3, 6448Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyProf. Geir E. Øien
oien@tele.ntnu.no57NTNU
(Norway)1, 2
49University of BergenProf. Øyvind Ytrehus
oyvind.ytrehus@ii.uib.no72UoB
(Norway)1, 5, 7
550Nera ResearchPål Orten
pal.orten@research.nera.no71NERA
(Norway)1, 3, 6551University of SouthamptonProf. Lajos Hanzo
lh@ecs.soton.ac.uk10UoSo
(UK)1, 2, 7552University of SurreyProf. A. M. Kondoz
a.kondoz@eim.surrey.ac.uk145UoSu
(UK)1, 5, 7553University of EdinburghProf. Steve McLaughlin
steve.mclaughlin@ee.ed.ac.uk70UoE
(UK)1, 2, 4, 7554
CRLLDr. Brett Harker
bharker@wavelengthsolutions.co.uk20
CRLL
(UK)1, 2, 4, 7
Table 5.1 The partners of NEWCOM

Figure 1 gives the cartography of NEWCOM, which shows a good participation of almost all countries of the European Union (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom). Six other countries (Hungary, Israel, Norway, Poland, Switzerland and Turkey) are associated with the project.
In the sequel, we provide the list of the different groups. In order to demonstrate the excellence of the participants, as individuals, as well as the aggregate quality of the network, we supply also a succinct CV of the principal investigators, or a brief description of the competences or motivations of the NoE partner.

Istituto Superiore Mario Boella on Information and Telecommunication Technologies
The association “Istituto Superiore Mario Boella sulle Tecnologie dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni” (in acronym ISMB) was founded on July 2002 by Compagnia di S. Paolo and Politecnico di Torino. On March 2001 ISMB was enlarged to a number of entities having a common interest in reseach and development in ICT, namely Cerved, Telecom Italia Lab, Motorola and ST Microelectronics.
The key goals of ISMB are 1) building a European ICT pole of excellence in Torino and surroundings 2) promoting highly innovative projects and integrated programmes in the ICT sector in cooperation with public and private partners 3) promoting new entrepreneurial activities on ICT topics. The Wireless Technologies Lab is led by Professor Sergio Benedetto, the Coordinator of NEWCOM.
Sergio Benedetto is a Full Professor of Digital Communications at Politecnico di Torino, Italy since 1981. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Communication Society, the Area Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Communications for Modulation and Signal Design, the Chairman of the Communication Theory Committee of IEEE. He has been awarded the European Italgas Prize for Scientific Research and Innovation in 1998. Prof. Benedetto is the Director of CERCOM, a Center of Excellence in Multimedia Wireless Communication funded at Politecnico di Torino by MIUR (the Italian Ministry of Education and Research) under a competitive call for proposals in June 2000. He is the Principal Investigator of PRIMO, a 15 million Euros project on reconfigurable platforms for future cellular systems funded by MIUR in November. Prof. Benedetto has participated and significantly contributed to the Standardization Committees on UMTS, CCSDS, and DVB-S2. He has co-authored two books on probability and signal theory (in italian), the book “Digital Transmission Theory” (Prentice-Hall, 1987), “Optical Fiber Communications” (Artech House, 1996), and “Principles of Digital Communications with Wireless Applications” (Plenum-Kluwer, 1999), and over 250 papers in leading journals and conferences. He has been Chairman of the Communications Theory Symposium of ICC 2001, and has organized numerous sessions in major conferences worldwide.

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
(Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications)

Prof. Andreas Polydoros, has been Professor and Director of the Electronics and Systems Laboratory, Division of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Greece, since 1997. He was previously a faculty at the University of Southern California, USA: His general area of scientific interest is statistical communication theory with applications to spread-spectrum systems, signal detection and classification, data demodulation in uncertain environments, and multi-user radio networks. Prof. Polydoros is the recipient of a 1986 U.S. National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award and is a Fellow of the IEEE (1995). He has served as the Associate Editor for Communications of the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory (1987-88), the Guest Editor of the July 1993 Special Issue on "Digital Signal Processing in Communications" for Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal, a designated Area Editor for the International Journal Wireless Personal Communications, and a co-Guest Editor of the March/April 1998 Special Issue on “Signal Processing in Telecommunications” for the European Transactions on Telecommunications.

University of Thessaly
(Department of Communications and Computer Engineering)
Leandros Tassiulas is Professor in the Dept of Computer Engineering and Telecommunications at the University of Thessaly Greece since 2002 and Research Professor at the University of Maryland College Park. His research and teaching is on Telecommunications and Networking with emphasis on wireless, smart antennas, sensor networks high speed networks and grid computing. He is National Expert representing Greece in the 6th framework program of the European Union, in the field Information Society Technologies. He is Associate Editor for Communication Networks for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory and has been an editor for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. Dr. Tassiulas received a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Initiation Award in 1992, an NSF Faculty Early Career Development Award in 1995 and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award in 1997. He coauthored the paper that got the INFOCOM `94 best paper award. In 1999, he was awarded the “Bodossaki Foundation Academic Prize” in the field: Applied Science: Theories, Technologies and Applications of Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems, that is awarded to scientists of Greek origin under the age of 40 for excellence in their field.

Intracom
INTRACOM, founded in 1977, is the largest provider of telecommunications systems, information systems and defence electronic systems in Greece. Listed in the Athens Stock Exchange since 1990, INTRACOM has established a leading position within the South & Eastern European and the Middle East markets. With presence in more than 50 countries all over the world, INTRACOM is now emerging as a global player.
INTRACOM relies on its approx 4.000 highly qualified people (more than 7.000 for the Group) with the vision, the vigor and the will to provide value for shareholders, customers and partners. The adoption of an effective R&D strategy, attuned to the company´s strategic objectives, is of vital importance to a high-tech company. Responding to the challenges of the new century, INTRACOM keeps a breast of scientific and technological developments and capitalizes on international market opportunities, maintaining a strong R&D orientation that is in step with company´s operations and business interests.

Technion
Dr. Shlomo Shamai (Shitz) is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion---Israel Institute of Technology, where he is now the William Fondiller Professor of Telecommunications. His research interests include topics in information theory and statistical communications. Dr. Shamai (Shitz) is a member of the Union Radio Scientifique Internationale (URSI). He is the recipient of the 1999 van der Pol Gold Medal of URSI, and a co-recipient of the 2000 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award. He is also the recipient of the 2000 Technion Henry Taub Prize for Excellence in Research. He has served as the Shannon Theory Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. He is serving on the Board of Governors of the Information Theory Society, and has already completed in the past a six years service (1995-2000) in this capacity.


Figure 1. The cartography of NEWCOM.



Bilkent University
Prof. Erdal Arikan is with the Electrical-Electronics Department of Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, where he is currently a professor. His research interests lie mainly in information theory and coding, and performance analysis of communication systems. Since 1997 he together with the Bilkent Newcom team has been involved in a major project under contract from industry to develop a radio networking system. Dr. Arikan is a Senior Member of IEEE. He is the recipient of a 1980 Winton Hayes Fellowhip in Communications, 1979 Henry Ford II Scholar Award, and 1994 European Simulation Symposium Best Paper Award. He served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory between 1993 and 1995.

Isik University
Prof. Erdal Panayirci is the Head of the Electronics Engineering Department at I^IK University, Istanbul, Turkey. He has been also part time consultant to the several leading companies in telecommunications in Turkey and involved in research on Integrated Space-Time Coded Multicarrier System Design for Mobile Communications, DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) project, design and development of high speed data modems, and design and development of high speed digital radio.
Prof. Panayirci was an Editor for IEEE Transactions on Communications in the areas of Synchronizations and Equalizations between 1995-1999. He served as a Member of Technical Committees of several International Conferences. He his the Technical Program Chair of the upcoming IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) to be held in Istanbul, Turkey in 2006. He is Head of the IEEE Communication Chapter of Turkey and Head of the Turkish Scientific Commission on Signals and Systems of URSI (International Union of Radio Science). He is an IEEE Fellow and a Member of Sigma Xi.

Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC)
Prof. Ramon Agustí, for the last fifteen years, has been mainly concerned with the mobile communication systems and particularly in the last years with Radio Networks, Wireless Access Protocols, Radio Resources Management and QoS. He has published more than a hundred papers in these areas. He participated in the European program COST 231 (1989-1996, Evolution of Land Mobile Radio and in the COST 259 (Wireless Flexible Personalized Communications) as Spanish representative delegate. He has also participated in the RACE and ACTS European research programs in the past (ATDMA, MICC, and RAINBOW projects) and in the IST (WINE GLASS and ARROWS projects) as well as in many private and public funded projects. In this time he has also been advisor of Spanish and Catalonian Governmental Agencies (DGTel, CICYT, ANEP and CIRIT) on issues concerning radio and mobile communications. He has been involved in past as the Head of the Signal Theory and Communications Department (1989-1992) and at the present he is the delegate of the UPC head in a new Campus of the UPC. He received the Catalonia Engineer of the year prize in 1998 and the Narcis Monturiol Medal issued by the Government of Catalonia in 2002 for his research contributions to the mobile communications field. He is part of the editorial board of several Scientific International Journals (Wireless Personal Communications edited by Kluwer Academic Publishers and Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing edited by Willey) and since 1995 is conducting in the UPC an international post graduate annual course on mobile communications.

Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia (CTTC)
Dr. Carles Anton-Haro joined Ericsson Spain, where he participated in two rollout projects for mobile operators (2000, Regional Coordinator). Currently, he works as the Assistant Director in charge of International Area at the CTTC. His research interest areas include array processing for wireless and mobile communications, spread-spectrum and multi-carrier systems, cross-layer interaction, multi-user detection and software-defined radios.
Prof. Miguel A. Lagunas is full professor since 1983. He has published more than 42 technical papers on IEEE Communications, IEEE Acoustic Speech and Signal Processing, JASA and Signal Processing. He has been prime and participant in 19 projects of the Spanish National Plan of Research and in 18 from the European Union and the European Space Agency projects. He is as well Consultor of ESA, ANT-BOSCH, Alcatel, Ensa, Alcatel-Sel, Era-Technology among others. He was Vice-president for research of UPC (1986-89), Vice-secretary General of the Spanish National Plan of Research (1994-96), Manager of the National Plan on Information Technology and Communications (1993-94), Senior IEEE (1991) and IEEE Fellow (1997), as well as Member at large of Eurasip since 1990. He was elected Member of the Engineering Academy of Spain in 1998, holding awards from UPC, Generalitat and Chamber of Commerce for technical merits (1990,1991 and 1991 respectively).

Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Joan Vinyes received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Telecommunication Engineering from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) in 1974 and 1980, respectively. Since 1985, he was professor of the DIT-UPM switching chair. He has a vast professional and academic experience in the fields of communication protocols, network performance evaluation, mobile communications, broadband networks, traffic control, and advanced signaling systems. Joan Vinyes has coordinated the Spanish team in several projects within the framework of European R&D programs as well as ESA projects, and U.S. funded R&D projects. Currently, he is leading the new Telecommunications School at Pompeu Fabra University (Barcelona).

Telefónica

Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo is responsible of the R&D activities within the Telefónica Group; its staff of more than 1.200 people is involved in a wide range of projects for different companies in Telefónica. The Access Systems Group in TID, composed of around 50 people, will be involved in the NEWCOM NoE. Its research expertise is mainly focused on technologies related to the physical layer of wireless communication systems. Such R&D activity is organised into the following fields: Radio on Fibre systems, Radio Interface Audit tools and WLAN / Beyond 3G.
Activities in the Radio on Fibre area are focused on 2G (GSM-900, GSM-1800), 3G (UMTS) and WLAN radio interfaces. The Access Systems Group designs special purpose Radio on Fibre systems for niche applications, in agreement with the specifications reported by Telefónica Móviles España. The group has also expertise in running field trials and industrial technology transfer.
In the area of Radio Interface Audit tools, the group develops solutions for the mobile radio interface testing, both for GSM and UMTS. These tools are designed to check the quality of the services provided to the final user.
Finally, the group has and intense activity in WLAN systems and future 3G upgrades to the so-called 4G or Beyond 3G. A proprietary WLAN platform has been developed for testing purposes, in order to evaluate new modulation and coding formats.

University of Catania
(Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni)
Sergio Palazzo is a Full Professor of Telecommunications Networks at the University of Catania. In 1994, he spent the summer at the International Computer Science Institute (ICSI), Berkeley, as a Senior Visitor. He is a recipient of the 2003 Visiting Erskine Fellowship by the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 1992, he has been serving on the Technical Program Committee of INFOCOM, the IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. He is the recipient of the 2002 Best Editor Award for the Computer Networks journal. He also is a member of the Steering Committee of the European Virtual Center on Wireless Internet (EVC-WIN). His current research interests include mobile systems, wireless and satellite IP networks, intelligent techniques in network control, multimedia traffic modelling, and protocols for the next generation of the Internet.

University of Pisa
(Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione)
Umberto Mengali is with the Department of Information Engineering, where he is a Professor of Telecommunications. In 1994 he was a Visiting Professor at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand as an Erskine Fellow. His research interests are in digital communication theory, with emphasis on synchronization methods and modulation techniques. He has co-authored the book "Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers" (Plenum Press, 1997). Professor Mengali is a member of the IEEE Communication Theory Committee and has been an editor of the IEEE Transactions on Communications from 1985 to 1991. He is a Fellow of IEEE and is listed in American Men and Women in Science.
Marco Luise is a Full Professor of Telecommunications at the University of Pisa, Italy. Prof. Luise co-chaired four editions of the Tyrrhenian International Workshop on Digital Communications, and in 1998 was the General Chairman of the URSI Symposium ISSSE'98. A Senior Member of the IEEE, he served as Editor for Synchronization of the IEEE Transactions on Communications, and is currently Editor for Communications Theory of the European Transactions on Telecommunications. He’s authored more than 100 publications on international journals and contributions to major international conferences, and holds a few international patents. His main research interests lie in the broad area of wireless communications, with particular emphasis on CDMA systems and satellite communications.

Politecnico di Torino - CERCOM
Gabriella Olmo presently holds the position of Associate Professor. Her recent research interests are in the field of image and video coding, resilient multimedia transmission over 3G and beyond 3G wireless networks, joint source-channel coding, multiple description, error concealment. She is leading activities related to the standardisation of still image compression ISO/IEC JPEG2000, with focus on the Part 11-JPWL WG (JPEG 2000 for wireless applications).
She has joined several national and international research programs under contracts by Inmarsat, ESA (European Space Agency), ASI (Italian Space Agency), European Community, Italian Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR). At present, she is involved in the HeliNet project, funded by the EC within the Fifth Framework programme for research in Information Society and Technology. She is member of CERCOM, a Center of Excellence in Multimedia Wireless Communications funded at Politecnico di Torino by MIUR, where she is member of the Steering Committee and project manager for activities in the fields of physical layer of beyond 3G wireless systems and multimedia transmission. Gabriella Olmo is member of the IEEE and EURASIP. She has coauthored more than 100 papers in major international technical journals and conference proceedings.

I3P Politecnico
The “Società per l’Incubatore del Politecnico di Torino s.r.l.” , shortly I3P, is a non profit organization with the aim of promoting, scouting and supporting intrapreneurial high knowledge initiatives arising from research results. I3P was founded, in June 99, by four public institutions: the Politecnico di Torino, the Province of Torino, the Chamber of Commerce and Finpiemonte, i.e. the financial company of the Regional Governement of the Piemonte Region. Since now more than 400 ideas have been examined by I3P, 36 new enterprises have been hosted in the Incubator, 5 of which have ended the three year period and are succesfully operating outside the incubator, while 2 closed their operation.
Prof. Vincenzo Pozzolo is full professor of “Electronics” at the Politecnico di Torino. He is the author of some 100 scientific publications in either international scientific magazines or international conference proceedings, as well as three books. He carried out research in several fields of Electronics, especially in circuits for telecommunications. Studies of particular relevance are those on the characterization of active non linear devices for microwawe applications, while at present he is working on Electromagnetic Compatibility problems at active device level.

STMicroelectronics
STMicroelectronics is a global independent semiconductor company. STMicroelectronics is a leader in developing and delivering semiconductor solutions across the spectrum of microelectronics applications and it is at the forefront of System-on-Chip (SoC) technology. In 2001, ST's net revenues were US $6.36 billion and net earnings were US $257.1 million. According to Gartner Dataquest's annual ranking for 2001, STMicroelectronics was the third largest semiconductor company in the world. The group totals about 40,000 employees, 12 advanced research and development units, 32 design and application centres and 17 main manufacturing sites. ST each year invests a significant proportion of its sales in R&D and capital expenditures.
AST group is a corporate organization, active since 1998, with the mission to provide the advanced system technology able to establish ST as the leading company in the system on a chip market.


Groupe des Ecoles de Télécommunications (GET)
GET is located in four places in France: Paris (ENST), Brest (ENST Bretagne), Evry (INT) and Sophia-Antipolis (Eurecom).
Claude Berrou is a Professor at GET/ENST Bretagne. Following the intuitions of several researchers who, in the late 80s, raised the interest of probabilistic processing in digital communication receivers, Prof. Berrou developed a new family of error correction codes, that he nicknamed turbo codes. He finalized the principles of the associated iterative decoding procedure, known today as turbo decoding. He also pioneered the extension of the turbo principle to joint detection and decoding processing. He is the author and/or co-author of 8 registered patents and around 40 publications in the field of digital communications. Prof. Berrou has participated actively to CCSDS (deep space) and DVB normalisation. He was the co-recipient of the Stephen O. Rice Award for the best paper in IEEE Transactions on Communications (1997) and of the IEEE Information Theory Society Paper Award (1998). He has also received several other distinctions, including the French Médaille Ampère (Société des Electriciens et Electroniciens, 1997), one of the Golden Jubilee Awards for Technological Innovation (IEEE Information Theory Society) in 1998, and more recently the 2003 IEEE Richard W. Hamming medal with Prof. Alain Glavieux.



SUPELEC
(Wireless communications department)
Dr. Hikmet Sari has a 24-year experience in industry, where he occupied both research and managerial positions. His technical achievements and contributions to the field of digital communications have gained him a strong recognition, not only in industry, but also in research institutions and academia. His major contributions to digital microwave radio, digital satellite and cable TV broadcasting, broadband wireless access, and broadband cable access are widely known in industry and gave a significant competitive advantage to his successive employers in their products. Also, his numerous innovations in adaptive channel equalization, synchronization, bandwidth-efficient modulation and coding, receiver design, linear and nonlinear interference cancellation, multicarrier transmission, and multiple access techniques are recognized worldwide and often referenced by the international research community. In every position that he has occupied since the beginning of his career. Dr. Sari has published some 135 scientific articles in international journals, magazines, and conference proceedings, and he holds over 25 patents.
In April 2003, Dr. Sari joined Ecole Superieure d’Electricite (SUPELEC) as a Professor and Head of the Wireless Communications Department.

The French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS)
The French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) is a public basic-research organization that defines its mission as producing knowledge and making it available to society. The CNRS has 25,283 employees (among which 11,349 researchers and 13,934 engineers and technical and administrative staff). Its budget amounts to 2,533 million euros (including VAT) for the year 2002. The 1,256 CNRS service and research units are spread throughout the country and cover all fields of research. The new technologies for communication and information (NTIC) constitute, with the life sciences, one of the major stakes of economic and social development for the 21st century. This is why the CNRS (French Public Research Organization) created on October 5, 2000, the 8th Scientific Department devoted to Sciences end Technologies for Information and Communication: STIC. With 130 research units working on data processing, automatic, signal processing, electronics, micro and nano technologies, human interactions, cognition, the department has structured its research in 4 large shutters which gave place to launching 50 cross-disciplinary networks (RTP) associating research units, industrials, experts around thematic prospective outcomes. The RTP concerned with NEWCOM activities is entitled "Pervasive networks and communications", headed by Prof. Pierre Duhamel.

Cooperative Laboratory “Telecommunications for Space and Aeronautics” (TeSA)
With their increasing reputation of excellence in Space and Aeronautics, Toulouse and its surrounding Midi-Pyrénées Région offer best conditions for research in Telecommunications Engineering. With its federative spirit, TéSA pioneers a new kind of research laboratory in Midi-Pyrénées and France, attracting researchers and practitioners accross closely related domains, and making "synergy" all but a buzzword. TéSA has received support from local, public institutions, and will increasingly rely on industrial contracts. TéSA has started as a joint laboratory between research institutes (Centre National d'Études Spatiales :CNES, Direction Générale de l'Aviation Civile: DGAC), engineering schools offering Ph.D. programmes (INP-ENSEEIHT,ENST,ENAC,ENSICA,SUPAERO), and major companies in Telecommunications, Space and Aeronautics (ALCATEL SPACE, ROCKWELL COLLINS france). The domains of excellence of TéSA are: digital communications, satellite networks, navigation and localization, signal processing theory and methods. The activities of TeSA, in the NEWCOM area, will focus on:
- Digital Communications: high performance modulation and coding schemes, CDMA systems, OFDM systems, propagation modelling and fade mitigation techniques for Ka, Q, V band satellite communications, digital receivers (including multiuser receivers), synchronization at very low Eb/No, software radio, non-linear channel characterization and mitigation techniques.
- Satellite networks : ressource allocation (simulation environment for satellite networks, ressource allocation optimization, handoff strategies), Terrestrial/satellite network architecture (lP multicast architecture, software radio).





France Télécom
The main research activities of the “Mobile Services and Radio Systems” Direction of FTR&D are related to the study, optimisation, development, engineering and deployment of radio networks. Thus FTR&D/DMR has a strong expertise in radio systems as mobile systems (GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS FDD, UMTS TDD), WLAN (802.11, Hiperlan/2), WPAN (Bluetooth, 802.15), broadcasting systems (DAB, DVB-T). FTR&D/DMR is involved in standardization to analyse and anticipate the evolution of future systems.
The DRC Research Network has a strong expertise in all the transmission information processing and more precisely in: source-channel coding/decoding, error-correcting techniques (turbo-codes, hybrid ARQ, adaptive coding, …), mono and multi-carrier modulations (OFDM, IOTA), multiple access techniques (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA, MC-CDMA), advanced receiver signal processing (joint processing as turbo-equalization and turbo-detection, turbo-channel estimation, multi-user detection, interference cancellation, ...), antenna signal processing and multi-sensor systems. The DRC Research Network has also a strong experience in air interface performance evaluation techniques like link level simulation and link level modelling in system and engineering tools.

Philips France
The activity of Philips France, relevant to the domains of NEWCOM, is undertaken at Philips Rennes, which is specialized in demodulation and channel decoding for digital TV reception. Philips Rennes is providing the silicon solutions for satellite, cable and terrestrial media for both Set Top Boxes and Tuner manufacturers. As such, Philips Rennes is interested in NEWCOM on the fields of advanced channel decoding such as turbo-codes, but also channel equalization, multicarrier demodulation, channel modelling, as well as new techniques allowing low power reception for mobile applications.

Thales Communications
The TSI department of the Technical Business Unit Radio & Signal Technologies (TRS) is the centre for excellence in Signal and Image Processing of Thales Communications SA (TCF) in Gennevilliers, France. It is one of five such excellence centres in TCF. Its missions within TCF are:
- the definition and realisation of advanced studies in signal and image processing
- to assure the technical and technological survey in its field,
- the responsibility for the training of junior engineers and for the diffusion of new technical advances
- to maintain TCF at the best technical level through the proper collaborations at a world-wide level within French and European projects.
TCF is in charge of developing professional products in the area of wireless radio. Interest of TCF in the field of Newcom are TDMA, CDMA and SDMA access schemes, single carrier, OFDM and spread spectrum physical layers design, turbo coding and other advanced FEC and their overall optimisation.

Motorola Labs - France
The excellence activities in the scope of the NEWCOM initiative, matching with the work carried out at the Motorola Labs are:
- Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems
- Design, modeling and experimental characterization of RF and microwave architectures, subsystems and devices
- Analysis, design and implementation of baseband architectures and circuits
- MAC protocols for reliable delivery of multimedia contents
Note that our department specifically addresses the wireless short range systems: i.e. Wireless Local Area Networks and Wireless Personal Area Networks both at the PHY/MAC/RF/Hardware levels.
The specific domains of interest in the field of NEWCOM are:
- The common interests between our research activities and the NOE NEWCOM are listed below:
-Robust multicarrier schemes (e.g. ZP-OFDM and new ones)
-MIMO OFDM transmissions
-UWB PHY soft and turbo decoding strategies taking into account RF impaiments
- Advanced Radio Link Control strategies (low power scheduling, QoS, cross layer PHY/MAC algorithms)



TurboConcept
TurboConcept develops and proposes innovative forward error correction solutions and other digital communication modules for telecom applications. The expertise is mainly focused on turbo codes and associated so-called turbo-techniques. TurboConcept has a strong research partnership with ENST-Bretagne (GET), where turbo codes were born, and is today very active to promote optimized turbo scheme in standardization bodies, such as DVB (DVB-RCS and DVB-S2).
The fields of interest of TurboConcept in NEWCOM are:
- Advanced coding schemes (turbo coding, LDPCs…)
- Coding schemes for high order modulations
- Advanced synchronization schemes (turbo detection, joint coding and synchronization schemes…)
- Coding schemes for complex noisy channels
- Architectural design of above-mentioned schemes, hardware implementations
and, in general, digital communications for tomorrow systems.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Prof. Loeliger's expertise lies in information theory, error correcting codes, coded modulation schemes, iterative signal processing, and robust nonlinear analog networks. Prof. Wittneben has significant previous experience in MIMO wireless communications, in particular space-time coding, nonlinear signal processing, link level optimization of SISO/MIMO systems, node distributed signal processing and cooperative diversity. Prof. Boelcskei has expertise in physical layer, systems level, and propagation aspects of OFDM, MIMO wireless, and distributed wireless systems. Prof. Dahlhaus has expertise in efficient baseband signal processing, multi-standard physical layer concepts, robust detection in interference-limited scenarios, multicarrier wireless communications, and smart antennas.

Elektrobit
Elektrobit AG is a member of Elektrobit Group Plc. that offers its services in the fields of Contract R&D, Testing Solutions and Automation Solutions, mainly for wireless communications and other high-tech industries.
In the frame of its internal 4G research, Elektrobit has research activities in various topics connected to NEWCOM departments. This includes the study of air interface technologies, algorithm development, networking and implementation aspects. Elektrobit specializes in the field of radio channel measurements, emulation and simulation. Elektrobit's product portfolio includes the PropSound MIMO radio channel sounder and PropSim channel emulator families. For both products Elektrobit has several research partnerships which extend also to other areas like smart antenna implementation. Elektrobit AG has active cooperations with Aalborg University, ETH Zürich and University of applied sciences Rapperswil. Elektrobit AG can mainly contribute in the MIMO channel characterisation by measurements and development of channel estimation algorithms.

Munich University of Technology
(Institute for Communication Engineering)
Prof. Joachim Hagenauer received his degrees from the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, where he served as an assistant professor. He held a postdoctoral fellowship position at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, a one year visiting position year at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Crawford Hill, and a research position at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, since 1990 as the director of the DLR Institute for Communications Technology. Since April 1993 he is a full professor for Telecommunications at the Munich University of Technology (TUM) and since 2002 a Full Member of the Bavarian Academy of Science. Professor Hagenauer is a Fellow of the IEEE, the recipient of the 1996 E.H. Armstrong-Award of the IEEE Communications Society and of the IEEE 2003 “Alexander Graham Bell Medal”. In 2001 he served as the President of the IEEE Information Theory Society.

Aachen University
Prof. Dr. Heinrich Meyr is a professor in Electrical Engineering at Aachen University (RWTH Aachen) since 1977. He has worked extensively in the areas of communication theory, synchronization, and digital signal processing for the last thirty years. His research has been applied to the design of many industrial products. At RWTH Aachen, he heads an institute involved in the analysis and design of complex signal processing systems for communication applications. He was a co-founder of CADIS GmbH (acquired 1993 by Synopsys, Mountain View, California) a company which commercialized the tool suite COSSAP. He also co-founded LisaTek, a company which is revolutionizing the automation of embedded processor use for system-on-chip (SoC) designs and which was recently acquired by CoWare Inc. Dr. Meyr has published numerous IEEE papers and holds many patents. He is the author (together with Dr. G. Ascheid ) of the book "Synchronization in Digital Communications", Wiley 1990 and of the book "Digital Communication Receivers. Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing" (together with Dr. M. Moeneclaey and Dr. S. Fechtel), Wiley, October 1997. Dr. Meyr is the recipient of the prestigious “Mannesmann Innovation Prize” for the year 2000. The Mannesmann prize is awarded for outstanding contributions to the area of wireless communications. As well as being a Fellow of the IEEE, he has served as Vice President for International Affairs of the IEEE Communications Society.

University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
Johannes Huber is a Professor at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, since 1991. His research interests are information and coding theory, modulation schemes, high rate baseband transmission and algorithms for signal detection and adaptive equalization for channels with severe intersymbol interference. Since 2001, he is Head of the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Engineering of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. In 1996, Prof. Huber was appointed to be a member of the Committee 5.1 "Information und System Theory" of the German Society on Information Technology (Informationstechnische Gesellschaft im Verein der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik (VDE)). In 1999 he was elected chairman of this committee.
Prof. Huber is serving as a member of the Editorial Board of the "International Journal on Electronics and Communications (AEÜ)" since 1994 and is Editor-in-Chief of this journal since 1997. From 1996 to 1999 he was an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Communications. In 1998 he was elected for a Member of the Board of Governors of the IEEE Information Theory Society. He was Co-Chairman and member of the program committee of several international conferences on information theory and coding. Johannes Huber is author or co-author of about 170 articles and conference papers and of a textbook "Trelliscodierung" (in German). In 1988, he received the research award of the German Society of Information Techniques (ITG).

German Aerospace Center DLR
Stefan Kaiser joined the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, in 1993. From February to August 1998, he was a visiting researcher at the Telecommunications Research Laboratories (TRLabs) in Edmonton, Canada. Since 1999, he is the head of the Mobile Radio Transmission Group at the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Dr. Kaiser was involved in several European and national research projects in the fields of mobile radio communications as well as digital terrestrial audio broadcasting (DAB) and video broadcasting (DVB-T), where he also acted as project leader. Among others, he worked in the EC/RACE project dTTb and in the EC/IST project MCP. His contributions have included work on key technical definition and standardization. Dr. Kaiser is Co-Organizer of the international workshop series on Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS), and he is Co-Editor of the book series Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum & Related Topics (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000 and 2002). He is Editor for Digital Communications/Signal Processing of the International Journal on Wireless and Optical Communications and Guest Editor of several special issues on Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum of the European Transactions on Telecommunications (ETT). He is senior member of the IEEE and member of the VDE/ITG.
Vodafone
(Global IT & Technology Management)

Valerio Zingarelli (M’82) received the D.Ing. degree in Electronic Engineering from the Polytechnic of Torino, Torino, Italy, in January 1978. After graduation he gave lectures at the Department of Electronics and Telecommunications of the Polytechnic of Torino.
In January 1980 he joined CSELT, the research centre of the STET holding group in Torino, where he was involved in the main researches for the development of the digital radio transmission specifications relevant to the ETSI/GSM mobile radio systems, to the Italian and European terrestrial microwave radio-relay systems and to the ITALSAT 1, the first domestic satellite system.
In April 1990 he joined ALENIA, the major Italian aerospace company, where he was in charge of the radio communication research activities. Among these, the development of the ETSI/RES5 Terrestrial Flight Telephone System (TFTS).
Since July 1, 1994, he has been with OMNITEL (now Vodafone Omnitel), the second Italian Operator of the digital cellular mobile radio networks at 900 MHz and at 1800 MHz according to the ETSI/GSM standard. In OMNITEL he was first in charge of Cellular Planning and Radio Technology; then Director of Operations and Maintenance. From January 1997 until December 1999 he was Vice Chief Technical Officer and Director of the RF Engineering Department. From January 2000 until October 2002 he was Chief Technical Officer at Vodafone Omnitel. Since November 2002 Valerio Zingarelli joined Vodafone Headquarters, where he took over the position Director of Global IT & Technology Management in Düsseldorf, Germany.

IMST GmbH
IMST GmbH was founded in autumn 1992 with financial support of the state government of North Rhine-Westfalia. IMST concentrates its research in the field of mobile and satellite communication systems, microwaves, antenna techniques, and electromagnetic compatibility including environmental effects. The company currently has a staff of over 100 employees, mostly scientists and engineers as well as several visiting researchers from all over the world. It has available about 4,500 m2 of laboratories and offices. Due to its well structured research disciplines IMST is capable of doing fundamental research as well as realizing industrial driven implementations with strong focus on hardware and software development. The four departments complement each other in the disciplines system techniques and wave propagation, digital signal processing, digital circuit design, design of RF components and systems, and antenna theory and applications, which are all of relevance to UWB research and development.
IMST started UWB activities in 1999 with internal studies. In 2000, IMST launched a project on European level within the 5th framework named whyless.com (www.whyless.org) studying the feasibility of a generic open mobile access network based on resource trading and UWB technology including QoS and security aspects. Since 2002, IMST is furthermore active in the assessment of HW realizations for various UWB system approaches. IMST has developed a channel model for indoor UWB environment, which has been proposed to IEEE for consideration within 802.15.3a and has published several papers so far addressing UWB system approaches and algorithmic topics.
The research and development is focused on low data rate, high bandwidth multi-user communications together with the localization aspect. Work so far includes channel measurements, system design work, system simulation, and hardware test bed realization. IMST is strongly committed to UWB developments in its long-term strategy and will promote UWB systems and technology in other activities of national and European level for the next years.

Vienna Telecommunications Research Center
Ralf R. Müller was a Visiting Research Fellow at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University from April 1999 to April 2000. In May 2000 he joined Vienna Research Center for Telecommunications, Vienna, Austria, as a senior researcher and manager of the project "UMTS and Beyond" with a volume of 1.6 million euros. In November 2002, he has been promoted to the rank of key researcher. He received the Leonard G. Abraham Prize (jointly with Sergio Verdú) for the paper "Design and Analysis of Low-Complexity Interference Mitigation on Vector Channels" from the IEEE Communications Society in May 2002. He received a postdoctoral fellowship from German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in 1999. He was presented the "Förderpreis" award for his dissertation "Power and Bandwidth Efficiency of Multiuser Systems with Random Spreading" by the Mannesmann Foundation for Mobile Communications and the German Information Technology Society (ITG) in May and September 2000, respectively. He served as an expert for the German Ministry for Post and Telecommunications as well as the European Patent Court. He has (co-)authored some 70 papers in international journals and conferences and given some 30 invited lectures worldwide. He had visiting appointments at Princeton University in NJ, U.S.A., Institute Eurecom (ENST Sophia Antipolis) in France, and The University of Melbourne in Australia.


University of Budapest
(Mobile Communications Laboratory MC^2L)

The Mobile Communications Laboratory (MC^2L) -- initiated by Prof. László Pap -- was founded on 1st January 1997 in the Department of Telecommunications of Budapest University of Technology and Economics to satisfy the emerging need of well-qualified mobile communication engineers in Hungary. Since the beginning the Laboratory has played an important role both in education and research of mobile systems. In 2002 it was decided to change the name into Mobile Communications and Computing Laboratory MC^2L, since mobile computing is also taught and investigated. At the moment there are six (6) professors and twenty (20) Ph.D. students.
The main research topics include:
Mobile ATM, mobile IP (including IPv6 Macromobility, Hierarchical IP and Regional registration, IP Micromobility etc.)
Wideband code division multiple access physical layer problems (coherent and blind multi-user detection etc.)
Channel equalization schemes (investigation of linear, non-linear methods)
GSM, EDGE and UMTS traffic channels (a complete simulation testbed for UMTS has already been developed in MC^2L)
4G mobile systems (All-IP architectures, OFDM as a multiple access method)
Intelligent mobile agents (application of mobile agents in mobile infocommunication networks)
Software defined radio (we were involved in the CAST project and successfully presented a working SDR implementation)


Poznan University of Technology
(Wireless Communications Division)
Prof. Krzysztof Wesolowski has published about 100 papers in journals (incuding IEEE Transactions) and conference proceedings in Polish, English and German mostly on digital communication systems and signal processing. His main research interests include: digital communication systems, in particular wireless communications, adaptive receivers combating intersymbol interference, error correction codes and information theory. He is currently leading the PUT research team participating in the FP5 IST Project WIND-FLEX (Wireless Indoor Flexible High-Bitrate Modem Architectures) in which other mentioned investigators participate as well. He is the author of the book entitled Mobile Communication Systems (449 pages) published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons. Prof. WesoBowski is the contributor to the 6-volume Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, January 2003, for which he wrote a tutorial on adaptive equalizers. He is recipient of the Fulbright Postdoctoral and Alexander von Humboldt Scholarships. During his sabbaticals, he cooperated with Prof. John G. Proakis and Prof. Werner Rupprecht. Professor Wesolowski gives courses on digital communication systems, information theory, coding theory, data transmission and mobile communications.


Ghent University
Two complementary research groups from Ghent University intend to participate to NEWCOM, i.e., the 'Digital Communications (DIGCOM)' research group and the 'Integrated Broadband Communication Networks (IBCN)' research group.
The DIGCOM research group is headed by Prof. Moeneclaey (IEEE Fellow). The main research interests are in statistical communication theory, carrier and symbol synchronization, equalization, channel estmation, bandwidth-efficient modulation and coding, spread-spectrum, satellite and mobile communication. The group has authored more than 200 scientific publications in leading journals and international conference proceedings. Prof. Moeneclaey is co-recipient of the international Mannesmann Mobilfunk Innovations Prize 2000, and is co-author of the book Digital communication receivers – Synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing. (J. Wiley, 1997).
The main research interests of the IBCN group are Quality of Service (QoS) in IP based networks, adaptive QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks, protocol boosting on wireless Links, wireless access to vehicles (high bandwidth & driving speed). The group has participated in numerous ACTS and IST projects (ACTS: Horizon, Open, Photon, Mephisto, Panel, Tobasco, Ithaci, Prisma; IST: Optimist, Tequila, Harmonics, David, Lion, Stolas, Scampi, Nexway) taking the lead in some of these projects. The research has resulted in about 250 publications in international journals or conference proceedings.

Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL)
Luc Vandendorpe has been co-recipient of the Alcatel Bell biennal award (Belgian NSF) in 1990 and co-recipient of the Siemens biennal award (Belgian NSF) in 2000. He has received a Young Scientist Award from the URSI in 1993. He has been an associate editor of the IEEE Trans. COM (equalization and synchronization) from 1999 to 2002 and is is currently an associate editor for the IEEE Trans. on Wireless Communications. He is also a member of the Editorial board of « Wireless Personal Comunications » (Kluwer). He is an elected member of the IEEE Signal Processing Committee for Communications (1999-2002, 2002-2005). In these last years, since 1990, 52 Master theses have been supervised (on topics related to the network); and since 1999, 7 PhD dissertations have been supervised and successfully defended. In the last 10 years, L. Vandendorpe has published 42 Journal papers, out of which 27 are IEEE Transactions Papers (5 to appear in 2003), 8 are in Special issues (IEEE Trans Signal Processing, IEEE JSAC, Wireless Personal Communications, IEEE Communications Magazine), and 123 Conference contributions (out of which 5 invited papers). He is or has been a member of the technical committees of IEEE VTC 1999 Fall, Amsterdam, Globecom 2003, Turbo Symposium 2003. L. Vandendorpe will be co-technical program of IEEE ICASSP 2006 with P. Duhamel.

IMEC (Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center)
IMEC is Europe's largest independent research center in the field of microelectronics, nanotechnology, enabling design methods and technologies for information and communications systems. Within the wireless program, it is our mission to enable leading-edge solutions for the integration of wireless broadband transceivers. We analyze the functional behavior of systems by setting up models for the entire transmission chain, including channel and front-ends. Consequently, we develop innovative algorithms and architectures that couple excellent communication performance to attractive silicon implementations. Design and realization of the critical components lead to real-time proof-of-concept demonstrators. More and more, the biggest innovation in technology comes from a multi-disciplinary approach of problems. Stronger, certain research dilemmas (such as the interconnect problem, mixed-signal chip design, …) have no solution in one 'traditional' search space. Therefore, IMEC's wireless program pursues an innovative strategy based on multi-disciplinary teams.

European Space Agency (ESA)
Riccardo De Gaudenzi was with the European Space Agency (ESA), Stations and Communications Engineering Department, Darmstadt (Germany) where he was involved in satellite telecommunication ground systems design and testing. In particular, he followed the development of two new ESA's satellite tracking systems. In 1988, he joined ESA’s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwijk, The Netherlands where is presently the head of the Communication Systems Section. He is currently responsible for the definition and development of advanced satellite communication systems for fixed broadband and mobile applications and related digital techniques and technologies.
In 1996 he spent one year with Qualcomm Inc., San Diego USA, in the Globalstar LEO project system group under an ESA fellowship and later has been consultant to Qualcomm in the period 1997-1998. He has also been involved in the definition of the Galileo European satellite navigation system. He has been also consulting Eutelsat and SES-ASTRA in the domain of advanced satellite system analysis. He has been acting as evaluator and auditor for various European Commission R&D programs in the field of telecommunications.
Dr. De Gaudenzi is active in several technical committees and standardization bodies such as ETSI, DVB and the EC/ESA Advanced Satellite Mobile Task Force. His current interest is mainly related with efficient digital modulation and access techniques for fixed and mobile satellite services, synchronization topics, adaptive interference mitigation techniques and communication systems analysis and simulation techniques. He has published over 40 full papers on international technical magazines and more than 60 conference papers.




Aalborg University
(Department of Communications Technology - DICOM)
The Digital Communications (DICOM) group, which is a part of Department of Communication Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems at Aalborg University (AAU), focuses its research on digital communications and signal processing applied to communication systems. The group is internationally recognized for its work on speech coding and enhancement, estimation and modeling of communication channels, and multiuser detection
Bernard H. Fleury, during 1978-85 and 1988-92, was a Teaching and Research Assistant at the Communication Technology Laboratory (CTL) and at the Statistics Seminar at ETHZ. In 1992 he joined the CTL again where he headed the Spread Spectrum Team from 1994. Since 1997 he has been with the Department of Communication Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark initially as a Guest Professor and from July 2000 as a Professor in Digital Communications. Bernard H. Fleury is head of the research unit Digital Communications at this Department. In 1999 he was elected as an IEEE Senior Member. Since October 2002 he is in charge of the Ph.D. Study Programme "Wireless Communications" of the International Doctoral School of Technology and Science at Aalborg University.
His current fields of interest include stochastic modelling of the radio channel, high-resolution methods for the estimation of the parameters of the radio channel, characterization of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and advanced techniques for joint channel parameter estimation and data detection/decoding in multi-user communication systems.

Chalmers University of Technology
(Department of Signals and Systems)
Erik G. Ström received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Florida in 1994. Dr. Ström received the 1998 Chalmers Pedagogic Prize. He has published more than 50 conference and journal papers. Dr. Ström is a senior member of the IEEE, and was a Co-Guest Editor for the special issue of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications on Signal Synchronization in Digital Transmission Systems, 2001
Arne Svensson received the Dr. Techn. (Ph.D.) degree from University of Lund, in 1984. Currently he is Professor and Chair in Communication Systems at Chalmers University of Technology. Before 1993, he held various positions with Ericsson companies and with University of Lund. Prof. Svensson is co-author of Coded Modulation Systems (Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2003). He has published more than 30 journal papers/letters and more than 120 conference papers. He was an editor of the Wireless Communication Series of IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications until 2001, and is now an editor for IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. He has been a member of the technical program committee of many international conferences. He is a Fellow of IEEE.
Tony Ottosson received the Ph.D. degrees from Chalmers1997. During 1999 he was working as a Research Consultant at Ericsson Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. From Oct. 1995 to
Dec. 1998 he participated in the European FRAMES (Future Radio wideband Multiple Access System) project both as a co-worker and during 1998 as activity leader of the area of coding and modulation. The production includes 14 journal papers, 4 book contributions, 51 conference papers and 9 pending patents.
Thomas Eriksson received the Ph.D. degree from Chalmers in 1996. He was at AT&T Labs-Research from 1997 to 1998, and in 1998 and 1999 he was working on a joint research project with the Royal Institute of Technology and Ericsson Radio Systems AB. From 1999, he is an Associate Professor at Chalmers, and his research interests include vector quantization and speech coding, and system modelling of non-ideal hardware components. The production includes 40 journal and conference papers, and one pending patent.
Erik Agrell received the Ph.D. degree in 1997 from Chalmers. From 1997 to 1999, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of California, San Diego. In 1999, he joined the faculty of Chalmers as an Associate Professor. He was a recipient of the 1990 John Ericsson medal for "outstanding scholarship for the degree of Master of Science in Engineering" and is a Senior Member of the IEEE since 2002. Dr. Agrell was Publications Editor for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory from 1999 to 2002.




Karlstad University
(Department of Computer Science)
The Department of Computer Science at Karlstad University consists of approximately 30 faculty and staff members. The research groups related to the NEWCOM application are the distributed systems and communications research group (Disco) and the privacy and security research group (PriSec). The Disco group is chaired by Assoc. Prof. Anna Brunstrom and consists of seven researchers. Research in communication is focused on development of flexible transport layer protocols for soft real-time applications such as multimedia, cross-layer interactions and the design of future 4G wireless systems. The work on 4G wireless systems is carried out together with Chalmers University of Technology and Uppsala University in the Wireless IP project funded by the Swedish Foundation of Strategic Research. Covering wide areas to serve fast mobile (vehicular) users is a tough challenge. The aim of the Wireless IP project is to push the state of the art in this direction, aiming for at least a 30-fold improvement of the downlink bitrate as compared to UMTS in similar environments. Both new and improved air interface techniques and protocols are studied with Karlstad University contributing primarily to the work on protocols. The work on flexible transport layer support is carried out together with Tieto Enator, resulting for instance in the development of two partially reliable transport protocols, PRTP and PRTP-ECN. The performance of TCP over GPRS is studied in cooperation with Telia Mobile. The interaction between TCP and the GPRS protocols have been studied in detail. Other work on cross-layer interactions includes the design of checksum-based loss differentiation for TCP over wireless. The PriSec group is chaired by Prof. Simone Fischer-Hübner and consists of six researchers. The group mainly focuses on mobile Internet security and privacy, Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (PET), formal security models, security management, and network security. The research on computer and network security is conducted in cooperation with the computer security group at Chalmers University of Technology. The overall goal of the research in this constellation is to model security within a dependability framework, and in particular to find quantitative measures of security, i.e., measures that could be used for predictive purposes. Security research projects are conducted on security metrics and security as a Quality of Service (QoS) dimension. Privacy risks in the mobile Internet, as well as technical means for enhancing the user’s privacy, have been investigated together with Ericsson for the WAP system architecture. Another project in this area conducted in cooperation with the Royal Institute of Technologies investigates Location Privacy Problems and PET Solutions for Mobile IPv6. Security in 3G mobile networks is studied together with Tieto Enator.

Uppsala University
(Department of Signals and Systems)
Dr Anders Ahlén has been leading research projects in the signal processing and communications fields for fifteen yeas. His research interest ranges from adaptive signal processing, particularly for tracking of mobile radio channels, over equaliser design and multi-user detection to system aspects for future wireless systems. He is currently a full professor of Signal Processing at Uppsala University and head of the Signals and Systems Group at the same university. He has supervised numerous students to the PhD degree. Dr Ahlen was the editor of Demodulation and Equalization for IEEE Transactions on Communications from 1998-2002. He is a senior member of the IEEE.

Lund University
Andreas F. Molisch, during 2001-2002, was with the Wireless Systems Research Department at AT&T Laboratories--Research in Middletown, NJ, USA, and subsequently was Senior Principal Member of Technical Staff with Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs, Murray Hill, NJ. Since March 2002 he has held the chair in Radio Systems at Lund University, Sweden. Dr. Molisch has done research in SAW filters, radiative transfer in atomic vapors, atomic line filters, smart antennas, and wideband systems. His current research interests are MIMO systems, measurement and modelling of mobile radio channels, and ultra widebandradio. Dr. Molisch has authored, co-authored or edited two books, six book chapters, 50 journal papers, and numerous conference contributions. He is an editor of the IEEE Trans. on Wireless Communication, and co-editor of a recent special issue on MIMO and smart antennas in the J. Wireless Communication and Mobile Computation. He has participated in the European research initiatives COST 231, COST 259, and COST273, where he is chairman of the MIMO channel working group. He has been session organizer, and member of the Technical Program Committee at many international conferences. He received the GiT prize of the Austrian electrical engineering society in 1991, the Kardinal Innitzer prize for best engineering habilitation thesis in 1999, and an INGVAR award of the Swedish Strategic Research Foundation in 2001.
John B. Anderson, during 1972-80, was associate professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Canada; during 1981-98 he was professor in the same field at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA. Since 1998 he holds the Ericsson Chair in Digital Communicationat Lund Univ., Sweden. He has held visiting professorships at four universities in the USA, Canada and Europe, and spent two periods at Deutsche Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany (1991-92, 1995-96). His research work is in coding and communication algorithms, bandwidth-efficient coding, and the application of these. He has served widely as consultant in these fields. Dr. Anderson was a member of the IEEE Information Theory Society Board of Governors (1980--87, 2001--04), serving as the Society's Vice-President (1983-84), President (1985), and chairman of its international symposium (1983). He served on the Publications Board of IEEE during 1989-91 and 1994-96, and was Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Press during 1994-96. At present he edits the IEEE Press Series on Digital and Mobile Communication.He has also served as editor and guest editor of the IEEE Trans. on Information Theory and on Communications. Dr. Anderson is author/coauthor of six textbooks in digital communication and coding, including most recently CODED MODULATION SYSTEMS, Plenum (2002). He is Fellow of the IEEE (1987), received the Humboldt Research Prize (Germany) in 1991, and in 1996 was elected Swedish National Visiting Chair in Information Technology. He received the IEEE Third Millenium Medal in 2000.

Ericsson
(Ericsson Research)
Ericsson (Ericsson Research) is carrying out extensive research on Broadband radio-access technologies. At this stage, the focus is on research of new technologies, applicable to future broadband cellular systems covering a wide range of scenarios, ranging from local-area broadband access to wide-area coverage networks.
This includes:
- Basic radio-access technologies, such as modulation, channel coding, multiple-access schemes, duplex schemes, etc.
- (New) Radio-network topologies
- Channel/propagation measurements/modeling
- Advanced antenna solutions
Ericsson also has an interest in research on radio-access technologies suitable for very-short-range Personal-Area Networks (PAN) including the co-existence of PAN and local-area wide-area cellular networks. With respect to the identified "departments" and "projects", the Ericsson main interest and where we feel Ericsson can contribute to NEWCOM, are within:
- Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems
- Propagation, channel measurements and modeling
- Ultra-wide band communication systems
Ericsson interest in UWB research is for the application of UWB for very-short-range Personal-Area Networks, with a special focus on the potential problems of co-existence with current and future local-area and wide-area cellular systems and possible solutions to these problems.
- Functional design aspects of future generation wireless systems
- Cross-layer optimisation

University of Oulu
(Telecommunications Laboratory)
Savo Glisic is professor of telecommunications at University of Oulu. He has coauthored 5 textbooks ; co-edited 2 books; contributed a number of chapters to 3 additional books, which are used throughout the world; has participated as speaker and session organizer in numerous technical conferences; was Technical Program Chair for the: 3rd Intl Symposium on SSTA in 1994, the 5th International Conference on PIMRC in 1996, and IEEE ICC2001; and has had published more than 100 Journal and Conference papers, primarily in the area of wireless communications. These papers have significantly furthered the science in this extremely important area and the results have been used in the setting of the 3G wireless standard.

Kaveh Pahlavan is a visiting Professor of Telecommunication Laboratory and CWC, University of Oulu, Finland. His area of research is broadband wireless indoor networks. He is the principal author of the Wireless Information Networks (with Allen Levesque), John Wiley and Sons, 1995 and Principles of Wireless Networks – A Unified Approach (with P. Krishnamurthy), Prentice Hall, 2002. He has been a consultant to a large number companies. Before joining WPI, he was the director of advanced development at Infinite Inc., Andover, Mass. working on data communications. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal on Wireless Information Networks. He has been selected as a member of the Committee on Evolution of Untethered Communication, US National Research Council, 1997 and has lead the US review team for the Finnish R&D Programs in Electronic and Telecommunication in 1999. For his contributions to the wireless networks he was the Westin Hadden Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at WPI during 1993-1996, was elected as a fellow of the IEEE in 1996 and become a fellow of Nokia in 1999.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology - NTNU
(Signal Processing Group)
The NTNU current research activities, within the scope of NEWCOM, are mainly organized in the projects BEATS (Bandwidth-Efficient and Adaptive Transmission Schemes for wireless multimedia communications) and TURBAN (TURBo codes, Access and Network technologies related to UMTS). BEATS (http://www.tele.ntnu.no/projects/beats) is mainly funded by the Research Council of Norway (NFR), with some additional internal funding from NTNU - overall financial scope approx. 2 MEuro (400 – 450 kEuro annually until 2005). TURBAN is financed by the telecom operator Telenor and NTNU (approx. 200 kEuro annually until 2004). Furthermore, Co-Optimized Ubiquituous Broadband Access Networks (CUBAN) is the tentative title of a planned project application, to be submitted to NFR by our core group of researchers, in June 2003. The main idea is to focus research towards a suggested bandwidth-efficient open network architecture, built around an xDSL-based backbone infrastructure connecting ”hot spots” equipped with bandwidth-efficient WLANs and wireless personal area networks (PANs). The relevant keywords of this project are: 1) Adaptive coding and modulation in cellular systems, 2) Adaptive OFDM: estimation, optimization, and implementation issues, 3) Traffic modelling and buffering requirements in rate-adaptive systems, 4) Fair and spectrally efficient scheduling algorithms/multi-user access in cellular and ad hoc networks, 5) Diversity (space, time, MIMO, multi-user, system), and 6) xDSL infrastructure – modelling, analysis, and optimal transmission schemes.

University of Bergen
The Selmer Center was established in February 2003, based on the research group for Coding Theory and Cryptography within the Department of Informatics. The international committee that evaluated all Norwegian ICT (Information and Communication Technology) groups during 2002, concluded that the group "...may be the best ICT group of any kind in Norway and occupies a distinguished position in the international community", and "This group is one of of the gems of the Norwegian Scientific scene, not just in the context of ICT". We are currently hosting a Marie Curie Training Site for doctoral students in coding theory and cryptography (ranked number 6 out of 307 applying groups in the application process.)
The most relevant subjects for our group are code design and decoding algorithms, as well as sequence design for CDMA and related protocols. Recent work has also focused on problems of joint decoding and channel estimation, and on adaptive coding. Further, we have immediate plans to expand within the fields of space time coding and, due to the strong cryptologic component of our group, the multidisciplinary fields of wireless communication security. Within the NoE, we are most interested in the activities within "Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless systems", especially Coding and Signal Design for Future Wireless Broadband Systems, Synchronization, Channel estimation, and Equalisation for Wireless Systems, and Generic Aspects of Iterative Receivers. Other areas of interest to us include "Source coding and reliable delivery of multimedia contents" and "Mobility, QoS, security and resource management in wireless networks".


Nera Research
Nera is a world-leading global supplier, developing, manufacturing and selling fixed, wireless and satellite communication equipment and systems. The company designs, develops, manufactures and markets point-to-point and point-to-multipoint radio link equipment, satellite terminals and gateways for mobile and fixed satellite communications. Nera is a major supplier to INMARSAT. The company is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. An associated company, Nera Telecommunications Ltd., is listed in the Singapore Stock Exchange. Nera Broadband Satellite is a fully owned Nera company focusing on broadband solutions via satellite. The Nera Group has offices in more than 22 countries, distributors in over 70 countries, and customers in 100 countries. In addition Nera has access to the distribution networks of the manufacturing partner Flextronics. Additional information is available at www.nera.no.
Nera Research is the Nera Group’s central research unit. One of the objectives of Nera Research is to perform business driven research to bring forward technology for future products, and be foresighted with respect to new business opportunities and contribute to acquire the necessary technology base for these. Focus shall be on the development of Nera core technology within fixed and mobile radio communications. Nera Research (NR) supports Nera’s technology needs and competence build-up through a combination of long-term research and consulting/participation in business units’ development projects. The goal is to have 2/3 of the activities as research oriented, with research content to qualify for external research funding - judged by content, focus and management. Nera research projects receive funding from the Research Council of Norway, the European Space Agency, the EU, and the Norwegian Space Agency. The participation in development projects ensures business focus and product competence.
Nera Research has played a central role in technology development and research for all of Nera’s product areas. In particular, it is in the forefront on receiver algorithms (e.g. synchronisation, equalisation), channel coding/decoding, waveguide filters, amplifiers, oscillators, and network/protocol issues. Nera Research benefits from experience gained through research for radio link communications, fixed wireless access systems, mobile satellite communications, and broadband satellite systems.
For its radio link business, implementation of radios and modems with higher order modulation schemes has been a must for decades. Nera SatCom unit was the first in the world to present a commercial product with Turbo coding. Nera Research has continued to explore advanced channel coding schemes also in combination with higher order modulation techniques.

University of Southampton
Lajos Hanzo, during his 26-year career in telecommunications, has held various research and academic posts in Hungary, Germany and the UK. Since 1986 he has been with the Department of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS), University of Southampton, UK, where he holds the chair in telecommunications. The Dept. of ECS is one of the two 5*A-rated departments along with the University of Surrey, also a member of the NEWCOM NoE.
Prof. Hanzo has co-authored 10 John Wiley - IEEE Press books on mobile radio communications totaling about 8000 pages, published about 400 research papers, organised and chaired conference sessions, presented overview lectures and been awarded a number of distinctions. Currently he is managing 35-strong academic research team, working on a range of research projects in the field of wireless multimedia communications sponsored by industry, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) UK, the European IST Programme and the Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence (VCE), UK. He is an enthusiastic supporter of industrial and academic liaison and he has taught a wide range of industrial courses. He is also an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer.
Prof. Hanzo is a non-executive director of the VCE in mobile communications, which is a collaborative research organisation of seven academic wireless communications research groups in the UK and about 30 globally active telecommunications companies, such as Motorola, Siemens, Lucent, Nortel, Vodafone, DoCoMo, Samsung, Nokia, etc For further information on the Group's research in progress and for associated publications please refer to http://www.mobile.ecs.soton.ac.uk

University of Surrey
Centre for Communication Systems Research
Prof. Ahmet Kondoz was one of the original founders of the Centre for Communication Systems Research (CCSR) which houses 12 academics, 35 research assistants and 70 PhD students. Prof. Kondoz has developed expertise in speech/video coding for wireless communications, link adaptive transmission for improved QoS in wireless systems, packet header compression techniques for all IP systems, echo/noise cancellation and communication signal processing. Prof. Kondoz and his team have developed an Adaptive Multi Rate GSM speech and channel codec that performed amongst the best in the ETSI competition. He was also involved in the ITU-4kb/s standardisation where Prof. Kondoz and his team developed one of the most promising candidates.
He is well known by major companies through collaborative work on several projects such as VSAT systems, secure voice communications, INMARSAT-M and Mini-M systems, IP telephony, etc. His team was the first in the U.K. to implement the full rate GSM codec and provided expertise/consultancies to major GSM manufacturers at various stages of GSM development, such as half-rate GSM and Enhanced full rate GSM.
Prof. Kondoz has been awarded several prizes. The most significant of which are, The Royal Television Societies’ Communications Innovation Award and The IEE Benefactors Premium Award. The former was awarded for his contributions to the AUDETEL project (AUdio DEscription of TELevision) which enables partially sighted people to view TV programmes by turning on a commentary channel which is being made available by Prof. Kondoz’s team. The latter prize was awarded for his work on improving video coding standards without needing additional transmission bandwidth. He also received, together with Prof.Evans, a £30.000 Department of Trade and Industry prize (to be spent on CCSR’s computing infrastructure) for having the largest industrial collaboration in U.K. He has published more than 250 papers, a book titled Digital Speech, several book chapters, and has obtained 8 patents.

University of Edinburgh
The signals and systems research group investigates the design of new advanced signal processing algorithms and the application of these processing techniques to the physical layer of mobile communications, radar and medical systems. This covers nonlinear filters, spectral estimators using higher order statistics and spread spectrum receiver designs. The major industrial contacts are with Nortel, Fujitsu, BT, Lucky Goldstar Electronics, Ericsson, Elektrobit, Nokia and the Mobile VCE (Virtual Centre of Excellence). The EPSRC/Nortel sponsored work aims to develop appropriate smart antenna algorithms for use in CDMA mobile base station transceivers and several significant publications have resulted. The BT/Fujitsu collaborations are investigating the statistics of impulsive noise and interference on local loop lines and the Mobile VCE is addressing reconfigurable mobile handset designs with the other University partners.
Prof. Steve McLaughlin has just completed a 10-year Royal Society University Research Fellowship on advanced signal processing techniques. He served as an Honorary Editor to the IEE Proceedings title "Vision Image and Signal Processing" until 2001.


Central Research Laboratory
Central Research Laboratory (CRL) is a research, design & development innovation centre with approximately 250+ engineers and scientists (40+ hold PhDs). The Wireless Group's main expertise lies in innovation and designing RF front-end for wireless, radar and positioning applications. We have experience of transceiver to air interface standards such as Bluetooth (BT), GPRS (2.5G), WCDMA (3G), DSSS & OFDM (HiperLAN/2, 802.11x) and more recently Wideband.
Since its foundation in 1928, CRL has been responsible for numerous inventions and developments of historic importance and has set the technology standard in their respective fields. Examples include stereophonic sound recording, public television broadcasting and the CAT brain scanner, which won a Nobel Prize for its inventor. Further information about CRL can be found at www.crl.co.uk
IST previous experience includes:
VIPDATA (2.4 GHz FHSS RF transceivers for BT-enabled Internet pen).
ADAMAS (5.8 & 10 GHz OFDM 20 Mbps RF transceivers).
PROMOTE-CHAUFFEUR (2.4 GHz DSSS RF transceivers).
PROMOTE-CHAUFFEUR II (5.8 GHz DSSS RF transceivers, multiple vehicle platoon, CRL provided RF/microwave equipment, including the advanced radio-communications system to DaimlerChrylser).
CABSINET (5.8 GHz DSSS transceivers, 5.8 & 40 GHz OFDM RF transceivers, we pioneered OFDM transmission at microwave frequencies with 1st transmission at Deutch Telecom in Berlin, the work included formulating ETSI DVB-MT standard in collaboration with partners).


B5.1 Curricula vitae of Advisory Board members
Fumiyuki Adachi received his B.S. and Dr. Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 1973 and 1984, respectively. In April 1973, he joined the Electrical Communications Laboratories of Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation (now NTT) and conducted various types of research related to digital cellular mobile communications. From July 1992 to December 1999, he was with NTT Mobile Communications Network, Inc. (now NTT DoCoMo, Inc.), where he led a research group on wideband/broadband CDMA wireless access for IMT-2000 and beyond. Since January 2000, he has been with Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, where he is a Professor of Electrical and Communication Engineering at Graduate School of Engineering. His research interests are in CDMA and TDMA wireless access techniques, CDMA spreading code design, Rake receiver, transmit/receive antenna diversity, adaptive antenna array, bandwidth-efficient digital modulation, and channel coding, with particular application to broadband wireless communications systems.
From October 1984 to September 1985, he was a United Kingdom SERC Visiting Research Fellow in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics at Liverpool University. From April 1997 to March 2000, he was a visiting Professor at Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.
Dr. Adachi served as a Guest Editor of IEEE JSAC for special issue on Broadband Wireless Techniques, October 1999 and for special issue on Wideband CDMA I, August 2000, and Wideband CDMA II, Jan. 2001. He is an IEEE Fellow and was a co-recipient of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Transactions Best Paper of the Year Award 1980 and again 1990 and also a recipient of Avant Garde award 2000. He is a member of Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers of Japan (IEICE) and was a co-recipient of the IEICE Transactions Best Paper of the Year Award 1996 and again 1998.
G. David Forney, Jr. received the B.S.E. degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, in 1961, and the M.S. and Sc.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, in 1963 and 1965, respectively. From 1965-99 he was with the Codex Corporation, which was acquired by Motorola, Inc. in 1977, and its successor, the Motorola Information Systems Group, Mansfield, MA. Since 1996, he has been Bernard M. Gordon Adjunct Professor at M.I.T. Dr. Forney was Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory from 1970 to 1973. He was a member of the Board of Governors of the IEEE Information Theory Society during 1970-76 and 1986-94, and was President in 1992. He has been awarded the 1970 IEEE Information Theory Group Prize Paper Award, the 1972 IEEE Browder J. Thompson Memorial Prize Paper Award, the 1990 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award, the 1992 IEEE Edison Medal, the 1995 IEEE Information Theory Society Claude E. Shannon Award, the 1996 Christopher Columbus International Communications Award, and the 1997 Marconi International Fellowship. In 1998 he received an IT Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation, and two IT Golden Jubilee Paper Awards. He was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in 1973, a member of the National Academy of Engineering (U.S.A.) in 1983, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1993, an honorary member of the Popov Society (Russia) in 1994, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998.
Robert G. Gallager received the BSEE degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1953, and the S.M. and Sc.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957 and 1960, respectively. From 1953 to 1956, he was at Bell Telephone Laboratories and then the U.S. Signal Corps. He joined the MIT faculty in 1960, became Fujitsu Professor in 1988 and is His Sc.D. thesis on ``Low Density Parity Check Codes." won an IEEE IT Society Golden-Jubilee Paper Award in 1998 and is an active area of research today. ``A Simple Derivation of the Coding Theorem and some Applications," won the 1966 IEEE Baker Prize and an IT Society Golden-Jubilee Paper Award in 1998. His book, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, Wiley 1968, placed Information Theory on a firm foundation. In the mid 1970's, Gallager's research shifted to data networks. D. Bertsekas and he coauthored the text, Data Networks (Prentice Hall 88, second ed. 92). His joint papers in 93 with Parekh, ``A Generalized Processor Sharing Approach to Flow Control in ISN," won the 93 William Bennett Prize Paper Award and the 93 Infocomm Prize Paper Award. He wrote Discrete Stochastic Processes, Kluwer, in 1996. Gallager's current interests are in information theory, wireless communication, all optical networks, data networks, and stochastic processes. He is proud of his many graduate students, and won the M.I.T. Graduate Student Council Teaching Award for 1993. He has consulted for a number of companies and has received 5 patents.
He was President of the Information Theory Society of the IEEE in 1971, Chairman of the Advisory committee to the NSF Division on Networking and Communication Research and Infrastructure from 1989 to 1992, and has been on numerous visiting committees for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science departments. His honors include IEEE Fellow (68), U. of Pa. Moore School Gold Medal Award (1973), Guggenheim Fellow (1978), National Academy of Engioneering (1979), IEEE IT Soc. Shannon Award (1983), IEEE Centennial Medal (84), IEEE Medal of Honor (90), National Academy of Sciences (1992), Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, (1999), the Technion Harvey Prize (1999), and the Eduard Rhein Prize for basic research (2002).
James L. Massey served on the faculties of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana (1962-1977), the University of California, Los Angeles (1977-1980), and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich (1980-1998), where he now hold emeritus status. He is currently an Adjunct Professor at the University of Lund, Sweden. He has served the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory as Editor and as Associate Editor for Algebraic Coding and the Journal of Cryptology as an Associate Editor. He is a past President of the IEEE Information Theory Society and of the International Association for Cryptologic Research. Massey was a founder of Codex Corporation (later a division of Motorola) and of Cylink Corporation, Santa Clara, California.
His awards include the 1988 Shannon Award of the IEEE Information Theory Society, the 1992 IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal "for contributions to the theory and practical implementation of forward-error-correcting codes, multi-user communications, and cryptographic systems; and for excellence in engineering education", the l987 IEEE W.R.G. Baker Award (joint with P. Mathys) for the "most outstanding paper reporting original work in the Transactions, Journals, and Magazines of IEEE Societies or in the Proceedings of the IEEE", and the 1999 Marconi International Fellowship. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, a member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, a member emeritus of the U. S. National Academy of Engineering, an honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Science, and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Andrew Viterbi is a co-founder and retired Vice Chairman and Chief Technical Officer of QUALCOMM Incorporated. He spent equal portions of his career in industry, having previously co-founded Linkabit Corporation, and in academia as Professor in the Schools of Engineering and Applied Science, first at UCLA and then at UCSD, at which he is now Professor Emeritus. He is currently president of the Viterbi Group, a technical advisory and investment company.
His principal research contribution, the Viterbi Algorithm, is used in most digital cellular phones and digital satellite receivers, as well as in such diverse fields as magnetic recording, voice recognition and DNA sequence analysis. More recently, he concentrated his efforts on establishing CDMA as the multiple access technology of choice for cellular telephony and wireless data communication.
Dr. Viterbi has received numerous honors both in the U.S. and internationally. Among these are four honorary doctorates, from the Universities of Waterloo (Canada), Rome (Italy), Technion (Israel) and Notre Dame, as well as memberships in the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has received the Marconi International Fellowship Award, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell and Claude Shannon Awards , the NEC C&C Award, the Eduard Rhein Foundation Award and the Christopher Columbus Medal. He has received an honorary title from the President of Italy and he has served on the U.S. President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee. Viterbi serves on boards of numerous non-profit institutions, including the University of Southern California, UC President’s Council for the National Laboratories, MIT Visiting Committee for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, Burnham Institute and Scripps Cancer Center.






B.5.2 New participants
From the previous material it is evident that the network members are quite complementary (academics, manufacturers, operators) for the envisioned work in the field of wireless communications, especially in the lower layers. Furthermore, the network exudes coherence. New potential participants could be contemplated in order to reinforce or promote technical tasks which could be proven relevant or insufficiently covered, as time and the project march on. The future might also bring new forms of interdisciplinary cooperation such as including researchers from the field of economics, health care. This has already been started through the involvement of researchers of University of Surrey and Politecnico di Torino, but needs further strength. In the field of education, new forms of cooperation might emerge and cooperation might be required with some new media. In particular, continuing education might require the cooperation of specialised actors, such as for example the Swedish Company CEI. New forms of business might require new partners in the future, especially SME's spinning off from the activity of NEWCOM (cf. B1.4). These issues will be tracked carefully by the network and appropriate actions will be taken in due time.

B.5.3 Other countries
At this stage we have already included into the network institutions from countries like Hungary, Israel, Norway, Poland, Switzerland and Turkey, which are not members of EU yet, but are strong members of ETSI (http://www.etsi.org/aboutetsi/home.htm) and other European telecommunication institutions. In the future, activities might be justified to include additional institutions from these countries, and others. Also, universities and research institutions from countries like Australia, whose governments are encouraging and sponsoring their researches to cooperate with EU, might be also included in the cooperation without financial support from EU. This has to be explored based on some initial results.
Finally, since almost all NEWCOM academic partners have strict cooperation with numerous, leading US universities, the possibility of joint agreement to extend scientific exchanges with them will be investigated, by exploiting EC and US tools.


B6. Quality OF INTEGRATION
B6.1 General Remarks
The background that encouraged a group of Universities, Research Centers and Industries across Europe to prepare NEWCOM proposal is a series of formal/informal links for cooperative research that many nodes have already established before the formal Call for Proposals was issued. Such links grew out of past European or National projects, by previous exchange of personnel in the form of visits or sabbatical leaves, through past joint seminars and workshops or simply after recognition at a meeting or at a conference of a common research objective. In full agreement with the goals stated by FP6, NEWCOM was seen as the ideal framework to strengthen, formalize and make such links permanent.
Evaluation of the degree of integration before, during, and after the (possible) development of the NoE is not an easy task. We will try in the following to list a number of quantitative as well as qualitative indicators that can be applied to NEWCOM to monitor and evaluate its success in terms of integration .
B6.2 Indicators of Integration
The integration activities defined in Section B4.1 and listed with participants in Appendix I have been structured into well-defined work packages with milestones and deliverables (see Section B8 and Appendix II), referring to the first 18 months of NEWCOM’s existence. Therefore, it should be relatively straightforward to verify the fulfillment of the integration goals. For instance, a fundamental verifiable milestone will be the interconnection of (at least) 50% of the nodes with videoconferencing facilities after 9 month from inception of the network, and the complete interconnection of all nodes after 15 months, as entailed by WPI.1. Many more such objectives are listed in the description of the other integration WPs and can be easily verified. But in addition to what is already written in Section B8, we list here a number of quantitative indices that can be used to audit and evaluate the efficient operation and advances achieved by the NoE as far as integration is concerned.
B6.3 Quantitative indicators of integration produced by NEWCOM
B6.3.1 Number of joint publications
One of the primary outputs of research is constituted by papers published in internationally acclaimed journals and contributions to major international conferences, both having a proper review mechanism. The success of integration in research finds a significant quantitative index in the number of joint publications produced by the NoE. By joint publication we mean a paper whose authors come from at least two different partner organisations belonging to the NoE.
B6.3.2 Number of PhD students attending NEWCOM courses
One of the main NEWCOM integrating objectives entails the creation of a distributed NEWCOM Doctoral school. Integration here means having students from different partners attending such courses, either via videoconference or physically. The relevant performance indicator will be the number of PhD students participating in such initiatives.
B6.3.3 Number of hosted researchers
In addition to working together with the aid of the teleconferencing facilities, a substantial contribution to transnational research will be provided by moving people among the partners of the NoE (NEWCOM training pilgrimage). The number of hosted researchers will be an indicator of the degree of integration that the different nodes have reached, although the importance of this metric must not be overestimated. In contrast to previous European programs such as HC&M or TMR, the goals of a NoE are far more ambitious than supporting mobility. Rather, it is on increasing “European awareness” of available research results and on catalyzing new research. This ambitious goal will be targeted by the distributed Departments and Projects of NEWCOM.
B6.3.4 Number of workshops
NEWCOM will support the organization of workshops on different themes as a means of spreading excellence. These workshops constitute efficient integration measures, since they provide the participants with an opportunity to share views and ideas, benchmark and compare their results, as well as crossfertilise future ideas. The number of organized workshops and meetings will be thus an indicator of the attained degree of integration.
B6.3.5 External perception as an integrated body
As the integration of NEWCOM partners intensifies, the NoE will also be viewed as an integrated research body by the outside world. Therefore, the image of the NEWCOM NoE in the eyes of its peers is an important objective metric of the degree of integration as viewed by the research community in Europe and in the global community. Clearly, this metric is not easy to quantify, and more on this subject will be said in Subsection B6.2.2 to follow. Some hints on quantifying this measure are: i) number of contacts registered at the NEWCOM website; ii) number of submissions to the online bulletin/Journal (developed under WP500) coming from outside the NoE; iii) number of responses to the open position calls hosted on the bulletin coming from outside the NoE. If such indicators turn out to be positive, the conclusion is that the “Distributed Knowledge Center” approach has been a success, and that the collection of nodes has produced an added valued.
Admittedly, it is quite difficult to predict reasonable values for the quantitative indicators as above, as well as a threshold that distinguishes a success from a failure. A criterion to classify the outcomes could be that of comparing at the European level similar indicators for distinct NoEs, all possibly coming form homogeneous areas of technology.
In addition to the mere quantitative evaluation of the integration initiatives, the attained degree of integration has to satisfy a number of qualitative indicators that we attempt to summarize in the following.

B6.4 Qualitative indicators of integration produced by NEWCOM
B6.4.1 Recognition of NEWCOM courses
NEWCOM aims at founding a distributed Doctoral School in wireless communications at the European level. Initially, the courses given within this initiative will be loosely coordinated with national education programs, but the long-term goal is the recognition of such courses by national Universities in their own respective Doctoral programs using an appropriate credit transfer system such as ECTS. This would mean adding permanent value to this activity that would be readily sustained well beyond the EU funding of the NoE, and would be a good qualitative indicator of the amount of integration produced by the initiative. Such qualitative index adds up to the mere quantitative number of students attending the school mentioned in B6.2.1.
B6.4.2 Participation of NEWCOM departments in European research projects
In addition to the first call of proposals for IPs, NoEs etc. within FP6, more calls will follow in the future. A good measure of integration would be the capability of the NEWCOM departments and/or Projects to successfully carry out further specific research projects. In particular, the proposals and the subsequent activity would capitalize on the integrated resources developed within the NoE, and would have a beneficial feedback to the NEWCOM efforts and research initiatives. This is also an opportunity for the associated industrial partners, which are not as yet formally part of the NEWCOM group to team up with NEWCOM partners.
B6.4.3 Attraction of trans-national industrial projects
The measures outlined under Point 2 are also applicable to industrial research projects with partners recruited from outside the NoE. If NEWCOM pursues integration and succeeds in achieving that, the already existing local contacts with industrial partners may evolve into specific R&D activities with the participation of a few nodes in the network, possibly coming from different countries. What is at the moment a necessary condition for establishing NoEs (i.e., trans-nationality and cooperation in research) will become natural after inception of NEWCOM since finding different expertise within the NoE will be easy, and it will come from well-integrated different partners across Europe.
B64.4 Activity within the standardization bodies
This field of research is moving at such a fast pace that the rate of release of new standards for new products and applications in wireless communications continues to grow. This also means that the activities within the different standardization bodies at the European (ETSI) or International (ITU) level are more and more demanding. NEWCOM can play an active role in this process, by sending representatives to the main workgroups, such as 3GPP2, 4Gmobile Forum, the Cluster on Systems beyond 3G, the Wireless World Research Forum, the Software Defined Radio Forum, etc..
As mentioned under Point 5 in Section B6.2.1 above, the global esteem of NEWCOM is an important measure of integration. Once NEWCOM has established itself within standardisation groups and bodies, we can also envisage a further role for this community as the independent evaluator of specific standard proposals.
B6.4.5 Citation index of joint NEWCOM papers
In the scientific literature the most objective measure of true quality is the citation index of a paper. Although this quality metric is publically available, it cannot be evaluated on a short-term basis, since it takes years for the original papers to be published, let alone for it to be cited. However, this is a very valuable objective long-term performance indicator.
B6.4.6 External participation in NEWCOM workshops
Similarly to the other above-mentioned measures, the interest of the wider wireless communications community in the NEWCOM workshops is a good objective indicators of the grade of integration achieved by NEWCOM.
B6.5 Commitment of the partners
Although this is something that cannot be quantitatively measured or quantified, the commitment of the different partners to this initiative, and the intention to make it as permanent as possible, is something that was perceivable in all of the meetings and in the effective collaborative efforts that led to the preparation of the present proposal. A high degree of participation, the willingness to be involved in all initiatives, and to contribute to the operation of the network was demonstrated by all institutions.
Moreover, Letters of Commitment have been already sent by partners and are enclosed in Appendix IV. They do not concern all partners yet, simply because the final rush in consolidating and assembling the proposal (which partners need to see before signing a letter of commitment) did not permit to all partners to consult their responsible officer in order to have the letters signed and sent.
As mentioned before, many of the NEWCOM partners were already involved in cooperative research, either formal or informal, and many have already exchanged personnel and students for research and teaching. Also, the initiative of the NEWCOM Doctoral School was something that a number of partners have been informally discussing for a long time before the proposal of the NoE was compiled, and a proper framework to make it work was the missing factor. What we are saying is that NEWCOM is not a random amalgam of partners recruited after the call for proposal. Rather, it is the formal framework for the efficient and enthusiastic collaboration of a number of partners, who have enjoyed longer collaboration in both teaching and research links. These links were already in place at the time of writing. Beyond formal letters of commitment, we consider this as a strong guarantee and commitment to fruitful and prolonged operation of the NoE. Specific examples of these prior collaborations within various national and international frameworks have been provided in other sections and hence here we refrain from repeating them.
B7 Organisation and management
B7.1 Introduction
The NEWCOM project involves 54 partners from the European Union and associated countries. The scientific content of the project has been divided into seven Departments and five Projects, each characterised by specific activities and work packages, as detailed in Sections B4.2 and B8. Besides the scientific activities (with their embedded integration content) diverse activities will be performed inside NEWCOM, devoted to integration, spreading of excellence, etc.
In order to maintain administrative and financial control of this diverse community, the Network Partners have selected the Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB) as the managing entity of NEWCOM. ISMB will provide the NEWCOM Operations Director, and will also host the NEWCOM Network Office (NO) that will act as a central reference body both for NEWCOM partners, and for the representatives of the European Commission. Among ISMB employees, we report at the end of this section the CVs of two persons with a long experience in managing large research projects, together with a specific competence in wireless communications.
The governing bodies of NEWCOM and the flow of information/decision through them as governed by NEWCOM procedures are shown in Figure 1. In the following subsections, we will specify the tasks and responsibilities of all governing bodies, the various procedures by which decisions are taken and implemented, and the procedures for diffusion of information to all partners.


Figure 1. The governing bodies of NEWCOM and the flow of information/decision )KM stands for Knowledge Management.

B7.2 Governing bodies
In NEWCOM, a clear separation between “administrative” and “scientific” tasks will take place, to ensure that the scientists and researchers within the network are free to undertake their work within the Joint Programme of Activities without being burdened by the administrative responsibilities of network partnership. This separation is reflected in the foreseen governing bodies:
The NEWCOM Director, the Scientific Committee, the Advisory Board, the Executive Board, the Department and Project Heads, and the Partner Local Representative will be deeply involved in the design and execution of the scientific, integrating and spreading excellence activities
The Operations Director, the Network Office, and the Local Administrators will take care of the organisational, management and administrative activities.
B7.2.1 The NEWCOM Director
The NEWCOM Director has the overall responsibility for the project, consisting of its scientific and administrative aspects. He chairs the Scientific Committee and the Executive Board, and acts as an interface to the Advisory Board. He also holds the project responsibilities toward the European Commission.
B7.2.2 The Scientific Committee
The Scientific Committee is the highest governing body inside NEWCOM. It will take strategic decisions on the activities to be undertaken and on the distribution of funds among the various activities/partners. In particular, it will examine the annual programmes prepared by Departments and Project Heads, and by the Executive Board members who are responsible for the activities common to all NEWCOM Departments, such as integrating and spreading-excellence activities. Individual programmes will be revised and integrated into the draft JPA. This programme will then be discussed with the Advisory Board for final revision and approval.
The Scientific Committee consists of the Local Representatives of each NEWCOM partner, plus the Operations Director and will meet periodically, “physically” at least least once a year, and “virtually” on a more regular basis. A representative of the European Commission will be invited to attend the Scientific Committee meetings, which will be chaired by the NEWCOM Director. The decisions of those meetings, and, in particular, the JPA, will be circulated to all partners and to the European Commission, and published on the NEWCOM web site.
B7.2.3 The Advisory Board
The Advisory Board is formed by world-wide known scientific personalities who have made fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of digital communications. They will act as an independent, “super partes” body providing evaluation of the JPA and of the annual activity reports. It will also act as the Award Committee to choose among candidates for the NEWCOM best paper award.
The NEWCOM Advisory Board will be formed by:
Fumiyuki Adachi
David G. Forney, Jr.
Robert Gallager
James E. Massey
Andrew J. Viterbi
These research luminaries were deliberately chosen from outside Europe, as the leading European figures in the field are already partners in the NEWCOM network or involved to some extent with parallel networks or integrated projects. Their CVs can be found at the end of Section B5.
B7.2.4 The Executive Board
The Executive Board is an elected subset of 6-10 members of the Scientific Committee. The Board will be responsible for executing the decisions of the Scientific Committee, and for supervising the life of the network through frequent (in person or tele-conference) meetings. With the Director who chairs it, the Board will be empowered by the Scientific Committee to take decisions involving NEWCOM activities and funds up to a certain level, to be decided.
Within the Executive Board, some members will be assigned responsibility for those activities that are common to all NEWCOM Departments and projects, such as integration, spreading excellence, knowledge management (KM) and IPR-related activities. For those activities, after receiving proposals from NEWCOM partners, they will prepare an annual programme to be approved by the Scientific Committee and Advisory Board, and integrated into the JPA.
B7.2.5 Departments and Projects Heads
The seven Departments and five Projects will be treated equally in terms of management. Each Department/Project will elect a Head, who will prepare the contribution to the JPA to be submitted to the Scientific Committee, and have the responsibility for its implementation. The Department/Project heads jointly with the Scientific Committee will be responsible for the ongoing re-definition of the scientific objectives, should this become necessary. They will submit timely reports of meetings and other developments to the Network Office, which will ensure their dissemination to all partners. Finally, they will prepare six-month brief reports on the Department/Project achievements.
B7.2.6 NEWCOM Partner Local Representative
One Local Representative per partner will act as proper interface between NEWCOM governing bodies and the group of local researchers/PhD students. He will monitor the local research activities, diffuse the information from the central bodies timely, and will be responsible for all local operations.
B7.2.7 The Operations Director
The Operations Director, an employee of ISMB with a wide experience in the management of large National and European Projects, will be responsible to the NEWCOM Director for the smooth Project Management of the NEWCOM project. He will manage the Network Office, whose tasks are outlined below. One of his/her first actions will be the preparation of the NEWCOM Handbook, the administrative and financial procedures “bible” for the network, containing a precise definitions of the governing bodies tasks and of the procedures governing the interactions between them in order to prepare, submit, and approve all activities.
B7.2.8 The Network Office
Under the leadership of the Operations Director, the ISMB will establish a Network Office to support all the NEWCOM partners and Departments/Projects and drive forward the Joint Programme of Activities. The choice of a highly experienced person to act as Operations Director and dedicated, experienced administrative support staff will ensure:
The establishment of the necessary infrastructure (development of monitoring mechanisms, circulation of guidelines and provision of training) for the administration of the project;
The coordination of (but not scientific input into) the technical activities of the network;
Supporting the Joint Programme of Activities, ensuring milestones are accomplished and troubleshooting potential problems;
The overall legal, contractual, ethical, financial and administrative management of the network;
The timely and accurate reporting on network activities to the European Commission;
Updating and managing the Consortium Agreement between the partners;
Providing project management support to each individual NEWCOM Department and partner;
Providing administrative and project management support to the Executive Board, the Scientific Committee, the Advisory Board, and the NEWCOM Director.
Supporting the meetings of the project’s bodies including, but not limited to, the Scientific Committee (preparation, agenda, support during the meeting, circulation of minutes, presentations and proceedings);
Organisation of (physical and electronic) conferences and seminars on NEWCOM topics of interest, open to the wider public, where the Scientific Committee decides that such an event is appropriate.
Supporting the development of the project’s Internet presence (see later)
Coordination at network level of the exchange of researchers and doctoral students within the network;
Coordination at network level of knowledge management and other innovation-related activities;
Overseeing the promotion of gender equality in the network;
Overseeing the ethical issues (if any) relating to the research issues covered by the network.
B7.2.9 NEWCOM Partner Local Administrator
Each partner organisation in the network will nominate an administrative contact person with whom the Network Office will maintain regular contacts, primarily through electronic mail, and where appropriate through telephone and videoconference.
B7.3 Procedures
A number of procedures have been identified during the setup process of NEWCOM as necessary to its proper operation. These will be accurately described in the NEWCOM Management Handbook that will be prepared by the Operations Director and distributed to all partners.
B7.3.1 Preparation and approval of the annual Joint Program of Activities (JPA)
The JPA included in the proposal will be the basis for NEWCOM activity. However, after the negotiation phase, and according to the agreed budget and final composition of NEWCOM partners, it will have to be revised. Moreover, only the first 18 months of NEWCOM are already well defined in terms of work packages, milestones and deliverables. It is therefore important to state the procedure for the preparation of the annual JPA.
Each Department/Project (D/P) Heads will prepare by the end of the year a draft of the JPA concerning the scientific activities of his/her D/P, together with the budget involved. Moreover, proposals on integrated and spreading excellence activities common to (or external from) D/P’s will be prepared by any interested NEWCOM partner. All these draft proposals will be collected by the Network Office and presented for examination to the Scientific Committee and Advisory Board joint annual meeting. The result will be an approved annual JPA, to be put in place by the Executive Board and made public to all partners on the NEWCOM website.
Together with the JPA, the Scientific Committee will approve the distribution of a percentage of the total annual budget (say 80%), to leave room for further changes and new proposals occurring during the year.
B7.3.2 Revision of the JPA
As the activities proceed and progress during each year, owing also to the medium-long term prospect of the research activities which make it difficult to precisely anticipate their development , changes have to be foreseen in the JPA. For major modifications, the D/P Heads will submit a change notice to NEWCOM Director, who will consult the Executive Board for approval. The same procedure applies to specific activities (e.g., spreading of excellence and integration) that are monitored and developed by members of the Executive Board, and to new activities not foreseen at the beginning of the year.
B7.3.3 Inclusion of new partners
The sharing of knowledge with interested parties outside the current members of the Network will be accomplished by a general invitation to organisations with relevant interests to join the network. This invitation will be in the public domain (on the Network web site) and the inclusion of new members will be:
free of charge to the prospective new member; and
at the discretion of the Scientific Committee, which will decide whether the prospective member can contribute to, as well as benefit from, the research objectives of the network.
The addition of new members to the Network will only take place where the Scientific Committee is convinced that this will enhance the Network’s critical mass of activities, expertise and resources. Any increase in the number of members of the Network will not involve an increase in the funding from the European Commission.
B7.3.4 Exclusion of partners
This extreme measure will be adopted when a partner has failed his obligations of participating to the NEWCOM activities for a significant amount of time (e.g., one year), and/or the partner explicitly requests to withdraw from the network. The exclusion will be declared under a decision of the Scientific Committee. As a consequence, no further funding will be assigned to that partner.
B7.4 Quality Control and Reporting
Quality control is central to the successful operation of the network and to its sustainability beyond the duration of the European Commission funding. The level of detail both in the individual Work Packages and in the Joint Programme of Activities ensures Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound (SMART) objectives and facilitates regular monitoring of the project.
Decisions as to the scientific content or direction of the work of the NEWCOM D/P’s will be taken by the partners concerned in cooperation with the Head of the Department and with the Scientific Committee where relevant. The Network Office, being kept informed of these decisions, will communicate them to other interested partners and, where relevant, to the European Commission.
Decisions relating to the administration and project management of NEWCOM will be taken by the Operations Director in consultation where appropriate with the NEWCOM Director. Significant changes to administration or project management of NEWCOM will be communicated to all partners and, where relevant, to the European Commission.
In addition,
Every six months the D/P Heads will prepare a short report on the progress of research activities. The same applies to the members of the Executive Board who are responsible of other network activities
Annually, a NEWCOM Annual Report will be issued, based on extended reports from D/P Heads prepared according to a well defined format. The annual report will list all NEWCOM joint publications.
Administrative problems will be reported to the Network Office.;
Conformance with this timetable of regular monitoring and reporting will ensure that potential problems with the project can be identified and resolved before right after their occurrence. Regular video-conference meetings, and physical meetings at least twice a year, of the Scientific Committee will maintain the momentum and the direction of the scientific content of the project.
The development of the scientific projects under the umbrella of NEWCOM is the responsibility of the Scientific Committee. The Network Office will monitor the administrative and budgetary progress of the network and the reporting responsibilities to partners and to the European Commission on a regular basis using appropriate project planning and budgetary tools.
B7.5 Knowledge and IPR management
Knowledge management within the NEWCOM network involves the gathering, organisation, analysis, refining and sharing of the knowledge of the partners in terms of resources, documents, and the key competencies of staff. The NEWCOM project will support knowledge management through the use of collaborative tools for knowledge sharing, and analysis of the relationships between content, people and activities into a knowledge map for the network. A member of the Executive Board will be responsible for knowledge management within NEWCOM.
The continuing development of the personal relationships between all those involved in the network enhances the sense of the NEWCOM network as a community of practice, breaking down barriers to knowledge sharing within and outside the network members, and encouraging the wider dissemination of best practice.
In spite of the Internet-related bubble and grey times for IST industries, NEWCOM partners still believe that innovative ideas can lead to significant industrial development, particularly in the mobile communication field. NEWCOM, through a specific task assigned to a member of the Executive Board, will offer to all partners the option of having their most promising results evaluated toward the possibility of being transformed into new entrepreneurial initiatives.
This action will take the form of support and consultancy on matters like idea evaluation, patent screening, business plan preparation, seed fund raising, etc. In doing this, specific competences of some NEWCOM partners possessing a significant experience will be exploited. We name, as examples, Politecnico I3P, the incubator of Politecnico di Torino, and GET incubator. The opportunity of creating awards for business plan produced within NEWCOM will be evaluated, on the ground of positive experiences already carried out by some partners.

B7.6 NEWCOM Website
The NEWCOM Website has already been mentioned in Section B4. Its management and updating will be undertaken by the Network Office, upon inputs received by NEWCOM governing bodies and partners.
B7.7 Sustainability of the network after the end of EU funding
The support of the European Commission for the NEWCOM project will enable the network to consolidate the critical mass of activities, expertise and resources which has been gathered for the project. As the operations of the network (outlined in the Work Packages) unfold successfully, the project will gain both a successful identity in the eyes of its partners and the wider scientific and industrial community, as well as an increasing momentum which should aid the survival of the network after the end of the project. The clear expectation is that the partners to the network recognise the strategic benefits of membership of the network, and this will ensure the network’s continued operational support. The cost of initial establishment of the network will be high. Once the momentum is achieved, the maintenance costs should be smaller in comparison. The partners should be prepared to contribute long-term to this, also considering that support for the activities of the network could be cost-shared from new projects developed jointly by the NEWCOM partners. Other initiatives contemplated for the purpose of securing long-term non-EU funding include (but are not limited to):
Continuing income from educational activities and teaching (long-term planning and funding of the Virtual Knowledge Center, particularly towards the European Doctoral Initiative)
Exploitation of the existing infrastructure and facilities for research and education at local, national and international purposes
Inclusion of part of NEWCOM in local and national R&D budget lines
Income from entrepreneurial activities (start-ups, IPR) via appropriate licensing mechanisms
Fund raising from individual and industrial donors and benefactors
Establishment of a long-term endowment program via internal and external contributors.
A precise planning process will be a priority of the Network upon establishment, and it will be monitored by the Scientific Committee.
B7.8 Handling of EC funds
The project funds from the European Commission will be distributed among the project partners according to the specific NEWCOM activities which the partner may organise, coordinate, or participate in. A budget for all activities will be inserted by Department/Project heads and Executive Board members responsible of other activities into their annual programme. The final decision on the annual budget will be made by the Scientific Committee when discussing and approving the NEWCOM annual programme. Distribution of funds to the partners will be handled by the Network Office under the supervision of the Operations Director. An initial disbursement of seed funds for a soft start’up of the network is also foreseen.
B7.9 CVs of key ISMB personnel
Alfredo Biocca graduated in Electronic Engineering at Politecnico di Torino in 1981. Since then he worked in the ICT field, at CSELT, the research center of Telecom Italia. He was in charge of planning the introduction of ISDN services in Italy, from the early experiments to the pilot and commercial service at the beginning of ’90. He was responsible of the sector “Vocal services” of CSELT , in charge of supporting the marketing and the introduction in service of new applications based on voice processing for business and domestic customers, with a staff of around 40 people. Afterwards he moved to Marconi Mobile, where he was in charge of the product planning of applications based on new technologies in the radiocommunications field, such as TETRA, Wap, Bluetooth, and GPRS.
He had responsibilities on project financing, IPR management and international standardisation. Alfredo Biocca has an extensive experience in project management , in relationship with international partners, in problem solving and operational processes management.

Agostino Moncalvo graduated in Electronic Engineering from Politecnico of Torino in 1971. In the same year he joined CSELT, the research centre of Telecom Italia Group, working in the field of digital communications systems, in particular equalization and line coding. Afterwards he became head of the Digital Transmission Section, in charge of the studies on optical system and networks and on Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. He moved to the Transmission Network Architectures Research Unit, dealing with the evolution of the access and transport transmission network, network performance, protection and synchronisation. Since 1994 he was in charge of the Satellites and Radio Relays Research Line, where he supervises the activities on satellite networks and services (DVB applications, IP over satellite, simulation of LEO constellations for mobile services), on radio relays in the transport and access network (broadband access based on ATM and IP over radio, radio network design and performance) and on microwave subsystems (in particular space-qualified waveguide devices).
He took part in several EC funded Projects, like RACE Project 1012 - Broadband Local Network Technology and Project 2024 - Broadband Access Facilities, and in ACTS Project NICE - National Host Interconnection Experiment, with particular responsibility on the organisation of satellite interconnections and trials.

B8. Joint Programme of Activities – First 18 months
The activities that are planned for the first 18 months in NEWCOM are structured according to the same guidelines given in Section B.4 (Degree of integration and the joint programme of activities), and concern the activities of integration, jointly executed research, spreading of excellence and management.
All activities described in Section B.4 are broken down into workpackages, which cover all of the most important research issues in wireless communications. The workpackages are named according to the labelling convention described below:
WPI.x refers to workpackage defined for the activity x of integration activities
WP[1...7].x[.y] refers to a workpackage defined for activity x of department [1..7]. If the additional y index is present, it refers to a specific workpackage defined for that activity. Otherwise, the name of activity and workpackage coincide.
WP[A...E].x[.y] refers to a workpackage defined for activity x of project [A..E]. If the additional y index is present, it refers to a specific workpackage defined for that activity. Otherwise, the name of activity and workpackage coincide.
WPS.x refers to a workpackage defined for activity x of spreading of excellence activities
WPM.x refers to a workpackage defined for activity x of management activities.

The work package forms are attached as Appendix II, and the Gannt charts pertaining to the work packages of each Department/Project/Other activities are attached as Appendix III.
B8.1 Integration Activities
As for the Integration activities, they have been divided into specific activities directed towards the creation of common infrastructures, specific activities directed towards research, and specific activities directed towards education.
Creation of common infrastructures
Among the former ones, the activity WPI.1 Set-up of the NEWCOM videoconference network and computing grid, consists in providing NEWCOM with appropriate communication and computing facilities. High-speed communications are needed to initiate and operate cooperative research with the goal of sharing data and equipment, whereas high-speed videoconferencing will enable remote education and remote meetings without the need to physically move people across the network. Also, many of the research initiatives encompassed by the NoE will be based onto simulation tools, very often quite demanding in terms of computing power. Therefore, a further enabling factor to come to a real integration of research will be the sharing of the (distributed) computing resources available in the network. Setting up a computing grid onto the high-speed communication networks will be a vehicle to obtain this goal.
Activity WPI.2 Creation and maintenance of the NEWCOM Website, addresses the design, implementation and management of a NEWCOM website. This infrastructure will mainly serve as a common repository of various types of information to be exchanged within the network. Moreover, it will also be used as an interface towards the scientific community, which, by means of proper public web pages, will be kept updated with NEWCOM activities, open visiting positions, public domain papers and conference presentation, etc. It will host all the on line journal, advertising of events, teaching material, etc., as detailed in the specific workpackages.

Easing scientific cooperation
The integration activities directed towards research aim at facilitating the scientific cooperation between NEWCOM partners. To this end, the activity Development of the NEWCOM shared SW/HW platform, is foreseen. This latter is further divided into four workpackages.
WPI.3.1 Methodologies and libraries generation for a shared SW environment
It aims at setting up and managing a general and shared environment for the design, simulation and validation of integrated software blocks of a communication system. Such blocks, developed within the various Departmens, will encompass a harmonization and conformance test prior to be included in the library. The common environment will include a multi-language simulation tool, a shared database of software modules uniformly structured according to specific rules of programming style and variable/parameter handling, a globally approved procedure for the insertion of new blocks in the database and the related actions for IP protection, prescriptions for the environment maintenance and updating.
WPI.3.2 SW test-bed: Channel models/channel simulator
It aims at developing the knowledge base for a simulation based performance evaluation platform for the assessment of future mobile communication schemes in NEWCOM. Departments./Projects associated with convergence of modelling and simulation of the propagation environment at different scale will be studied. Propagation model scale varies from indood conditions to large area coverage at the rural areas, with detailed surface cover data like urban building models. A general simulation environment for fading channels to test the level system controls as required by the novel communication schemes will be developed and integrated into a common test-bed.
WPI.3.3 SW test-bed: Mobility models/mobility simulator
It develops the knowledge base for the simulation of user behaviour and mobility modelling in wireless communication systems and produce SW implementation of mobility models to form a common SW test-bed. Mobility modelling and measurement are aimed at in various departments of NEWCOM. This WP will be developed in strict cooperation with the activities in related scientific WP’s, and the produced knowledge will be integrated towards a comprehensive and unified simulator for a common test-bed.

WPI.3.4: Fast hardware prototyping of critical communication subsystems
It aims at investigating fast prototyping techniques of subparts of simulated communications system that are critical in terms of processing speed. The main idea is to map these parts to FPGA devices, working as simulation accelerators and allowing for faster simulations.

Notwithstanding the importance of virtual scientific communities, sharing common tools and exploiting audio-visual infrastructures, the integration of research cannot be carried out without fostering the mobility of researchers within the network. This is something that is already happening among some NEWCOM nodes due to previous research links; the intent of NEWCOM is to make it systematic and possibly permanent.
The fourth integration activity WPI.4 Coordination and management of researchers and PhD mobility, is devoted to the coordination and management of the researchers and PhD students mobility. NEWCOM Departments and Projects will offer to researchers and PhD students visiting opportunities in the participating partners locations. The visits will be based on medium-long term programs touching several partner locations with the aim of training researchers in a particular field by identifying excellence sites within the network Departments, and having them offering well-defined and coordinated works.
The fifth integration activity WPI.5 Internal workshop/meeting organization is devoted to the achievement of a high level of scientific coordination by means of the organisation of periodic (not necessarily plenary) internal workshops and meetings. Such events will serve as tools to increase internal communications and periodically verify and evaluate integration; they will represent a unique opportunity to directly exchange ideas and to set up collaborations within scientifically homogeneous areas, as well as to put the basis for cross-fertilization amongst complementary research groups.
A sixth activity WPI.6 Best Paper Award will be devoted to promote the policy of publishing scientific results in the major international conferences and journals, as well as a healthy and friendly competition amongst the NEWCOM participants. This will be accomplished through formal recognition by the Scientific Committee and Advisory Board of the best paper published by NEWCOM researchers (Newcom Best Paper Award).

Education activities
The specific integration activity Integration of teaching and learning is divided into four workpackages:
WPI.7.1 Permanent program for lectures and seminar broadcasting
It is concerned with the set up of a permanent program for the organization and broadcasting of lectures and seminars held by distinguished speakers in one NEWCOM node, to all other members of the network. This will give the opportunity to attend high-level seminars by a relatively large group of people without incurring into excessive travel expenses.
WPI.7.2 Summer/Winter school organization
It is devoted to the organization of summer/winter doctoral schools by setting up a program of courses and tutoring activities for NEWCOM PhD students. This will foster trans-national cooperation among PhD students from several European countries, with the side-effect of promoting the reinforcement of a cultural European identity.
WPI.7.3 NEWCOM Doctoral School in Wireless Communications
It is devoted to the development of a “NEWCOM Doctoral school in wireless communications”. Attending such schools by European students will have the effect of automatically setting an early spirit for cooperative research that may be currently missing in some national educational programs. The NoE will be thus the natural means for implementing the cooperative, trans-national research that they will have learned to view as indispensable in their formative years.
B8.1.1 Relations between Activities
Since all mentioned activities are related to integration, they are expected to run in parallel, from month 0 to month 18, with the exception of WPI.2, Set-up of the NEWCOM videoconference network and computing grid, which will end at month 12.

.
B8.2 Joint research activities
NEWCOM Departments
Department 1. Analysis and design of algorithms for signal processing at large in wireless networks

In this large department, we have carefully shaped six joint research activities to accomplish integration of the researchers with different backgrounds and complementary competencies and qualities assembled in NEWCOM.
Activity 1.1 Coding and Signal Design for Future Wireless Broadband Systems
WP1.1.1 Coding and Decoding for Short Block Lengths
The best known codes work extremely well for large block lengths. For short block lengths (say, 50…5000 bits), however, there appears to be room for significant improvements. Therefore, our research is aimed at the design of better short codes and decoding methods. This research is not tailored towards some specific communication system; however, if successful, the results of this research would affect the design of many practical systems.
WP1.1 Coding and Signal Design for OFDM
Important technical problems in OFDM such as the ratio of the peak power to the average power of the transmitted signal or good coding and decoding for correlated signal-to-noise ratios in adjacent frequency slots have not yet been satisfactorily solved. The goal of this research is to make progress on these problems and thus make OFDM systems more effective. This research effort will interact with the research in WP1.1.1.
WP1.1.3 Coding and Modulation for MIMO Systems
There are presently two different approaches for coding in multi-antenna or, more generally, MIMO systems: “space-time” coding, which is really modulation, and “real” coding (trellis codes, turbo codes, etc.). The proposed research effort aims at 1) clarifying the roles of “real” codes and “space-time codes” (modulation) in MIMO systems, 2) understanding the requirements on “real” codes (also with respect to channel models/estimation), and 3) construction of codes and decoding methods suitable for joint decoding and channel estimation.
WP1.1.4 Signalling Schemes for the Wideband Regime
Recent work shows that large bandwidths of fading multipath channels cannot be used effectively by systems that spread the transmitted signal power uniformly over both time and frequency. The objective of this WP will be to investigate the scalability of various signalling schemes when the bandwidth is increased under tractable models representative of future wireless systems. The success of this work will be measured by the insight we gain into (i) how to design scalable signal sets and (ii) reaching a better understanding of the trade-off in using pilot signals vs. combined channel estimation and detection. This work will be carried out on an open web platform.
WP1.1.5 Adaptive Coding and Modulation
Adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is foreseen to become one of the key technologies for enabling large spectral efficiencies The objective of this WP is to come up with a deeper understanding of the performance limits of and necessary trade-offs in ACM and from this to come up with a set of design recommendations and rules-of-thumb for ACM systems. We will evaluate various state-of-the-art error control codes and modulation schemes for use in ACM systems, and compare these to information-theoretic limits of performance. Novel codes resulting from the work in WP1.1.6 will also be considered. The influence of interleaving in adaptive systems will be also studied. Furthermore, we will evaluate the pros and cons of two competing principles for ACM, namely FEC-based ACM based on predicted channels, and ARQ-based ACM based on the principle of incremental redundancy. Hybrids of these two principles will also be of interest.
WP1.1.6 Bandwidth-Efficient Coding
Although Shannon theory shows the existence of codes at all combinations of energy and bandwidth that are in keeping with capacity, most present day codes work at low rates, i.e., at low energy and wide bandwidth. In this project we (i) Devise new more efficient methods of coding in the 2-8 data bits per Hz range; (ii) Provide supporting coding/Shannon theory analysis.
The six WPs will be carried out in parallel.
Activity 1.2 Synchronisation, Channel Estimation, and Equalisation for Wireless Systems
WP1.2.1 Synchronisation, Channel Estimation, and Equalisation Algorithms in Low Signal-to-Noise Ratios
The objectives of this WP are to design estimation algorithms (for channel and synchronization) able to work at low SNRs, analyze their performance and investigate their effect on the BER. It will also be investigated how an iterative ("turbo") receiver can make use of the soft information delivered by a decoder to enhance channel estimation/synchronization/equalization. This problem will not only be tackled for single user systems, but will also be studied for multiuser receivers, in which case the parameters of all users have to be estimated. All these iterative schemes will be analyzed at the light of the belief propagation (message passing) algorithm.
WP1.2.2 Receiver Design for Multicarrier Systems
This workpackage will focus on parameter estimation, detection and decoding for multicarrier systems. Some emphasis will be put on multicarrier transmission over frequency dispersive channels or interference limited environments, and on multicarrier combined with CDMA. It will also be investigated how an iterative ("turbo") receiver can make use of the soft information delivered by a decoder to enhance channel estimation/synchronization.
WP1.2.3 Receiver Design for MIMO Systems
The objective of this WP is to design receivers for MIMO systems. Synchronization parameters and channel estimation methods will be designed. The design of receivers will also be investigated for MIMO combined with OFDM. Also iterative ("turbo") receivers will be considered, that exploit the soft information delivered by a decoder to enhance channel estimation/synchronization/equalization
WP1.2.4 Blind Receivers
Parameter estimation in digital receivers can be implemented in a blind mode, which means by using the received signal(s) only and structural information about the transmitted symbols. The objectives of this workpackage is to design and investigate the performance of blind estimators and the associated receivers, for channel impulse responses and synchronization parameters.
The relationship between the WPs is illustrated graphically below.


Activity 1.3 Iterative Receivers
WP1.3.1 Information Theoretic Description of Iterative Receivers
The exchange of soft information between distinct receiver components results in iterative algorithms which, if convergent, result in a state of "consensus" concerning the information components of a signal. These methods are known to yield only approximate maximum likelihood solutions, owing to the presence of loops in their equivalent belief propagation graphs. This WP will study of the impact of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes when used as the primary coding mechanism within an iterative belief propagation procedure of large systems. The setting will be modeled as either a multiple user LDPC coded Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and or an equivalent multiple antenna model, with channel state available to the receiver only.
WP1.3.2 Tools for Convergence Analysis
The success of the turbo decoding algorithm introduced a decade ago has inspired similar iterative information-exchanging algorithms to jointly optimize receiver subsystems. Although the performance improvements are quite manifest in certain circumstances, misconvergence behavior such as limit cycles, chaos, or numerical singularities are also observed in harsher communication environments. This work package shall develop a better understanding of convergence mechanisms in iterative receiver design, thereby offering invaluable design guidelines for future generation receivers.
WP1.3.3 Parameter Estimation in Iterative Receivers (This WP is an integrate part of WP 1.2.1)
In many iterative algorithms, such as turbo-equalization, turbo-detection, turbo-synchronization..., some parameters that need to be estimated (the channel, a phase,...) are usually assumed known for the algorithm design. It is important to reconsider the parameters estimation in the iterative receivers in order to design appropriate algorithms. Also implementation complexity issues will be addressed.
The three WPs are carried out in parallel.

Activity 1.4 Multiple Access Schemes
WP1.4.1 Multiple Access Schemes for Future Wireless Networks
The aim of this WP is to screen the literature to identify all relevant state-of-the-art research results related to the multiple access schemes. The findings need to be classified into different areas like: novel multiple access candidates, existing air interfaces that should be supported, classification of suitable multiple access schemes for different applications and networks. Thereafter, the most promising multiple access schemes will be chosen and studied deeper based on efficiency, robustness, capacity, complexity, adaptivity, and user synchronization demands. The assessment will be based on the common reference models and simulation tools developed in WP1.4.2.
WP1.4.2 Simulation Models of Potential Multiple Access Schemes
Developing the knowledge base for a simulation based performance evaluation platform for the assessment of future multiple access schemes is aimed in WP1.4.2. Problems associated with convergence of modelling and simulation of the propagation environment and mobility at different scales will be studied. Propagation model scale varies from in-house conditions to large area coverage at the rural areas, with detailed surface cover data like urban building models. The mobility of the users must also be modelled, stochastically and geometrically, at different scales: in-cell, inter-cell, handoff and possibly inter-network handoff. Similarly, all air interface level system controls as required by the novel multiple access schemes (e.g., interference modelling, power control, etc.) will be simulated in dynamic environment. Representative mobility simulation components will be developed and integrated into a common simulation platform. The initial design will be used in WP1.4.1 for assessment of potential multiple access schemes. The WP.1.4.1 work will result in requests for new feature and corrections, and these will be addressed in the refined design.
The two workpackages will be carried out in parallel. The deliverable D1.4.2.2 from WP 1.4.2 will be used in WP 1.4.1 to produce D1.4.1.2. The work in WP 1.4.1 will generate bug reports and requests for features to WP 1.4.2, and this will influence the final deliverable D1.4.2.3.

Activity 1.5 Multiuser Receivers
WP1.5.1 Convergence Analysis of Iterative Multiuser Decoding
The convergence of iterative algorithms in information processing can be explained by means of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts and related tools. These are information-theoretic tools providing predictions about the macroscopic behavior of the iterative multiuser decoder seen as a multi-dimensional dynamical system. This WP shall study the convergence issues of iterative multiuser decoders under various system assumptions which are provided by WPs WP1.5.2, WP1.5.3, WP1.5.4 and WP1.5.6.
WP1.5.2 Non-linear Soft Output Multiuser Detectors
Multiuser detector based on non-linear interference cancellation can achieve much more reliable detection results than linear multiuser detectors at similar complexity. However, these algorithms could not be used in conjunction with forward error-correction coding, as they do not provide reliability information for subsequent channel decoding. It is the task of this WP to overcome this shortcoming of these in other respects so promising algorithms.
WP1.5.3 Power Control for Iterative Multiuser Decoding
The convergence properties of iterative multiuser decoding can be greatly improved by imposing appropriate unequal power control constraints onto the system. This WP shall extend the earlier work in this area for the very simple additive-white Gaussian noise channel to more realistic real-world wireless channels, users with varying rate and quality of service requirements.
WP1.5.4 Channel Estimation and Synchronisation in the Iterative Loop (This WP is an integrate part of WP 1.2.1)
Iterative multiuser decoding can be put onto a profound theoretical basis deriving it from the belief propagation (message passing) algorithm. This implies that only extrinsic information is propagated during iterations and interleaving ensures statistical independence among messages. Including channel estimation and synchronisation in the iterative loop, this independence assumption looses justification and it is no longer clear how to combine messages optimally. This workpackage shall provide a profound derivation of iterative channel estimation, synchronisation and multiuser decoding from the belief propagation algorithm, propose appropriate approximations where necessary and analyse the performance of the overall iterative system.
WP1.5.5 Efficient Multiuser Detectors for Asynchronous and Fading Channels
Multistage detectors have been found to provide an outstanding trade-off between complexity and performance in systems with many users. However, their concrete design which manifests in the design of tap-weights is still an open problem for many practical scenarios, such as asynchronous transmission and frequency-selective fading channels. Some results of this WP will serve as input for WP1.5.6.
WP1.5.6 Multistage Detectors for Iterative Receivers
Multistage detectors studied in WP1.5.5 can also be used in iterative multiuser decoding loops. For this purpose they must be adapted to cope with interference profiles changing during iterations. This adaptation shall be performed in WP1.5.6.
WP1.5.7 Performance Evaluation of Large Systems
The performance of multiuser detectors inherently depends on many system parameters (at least on all the users). In order to compare several multiuser detectors in more than one specific scenario, large system analysis has been established as a helpful and accurate tool over the past few year. The multiuser detectors designed in other WPs shall be evaluated in the large system limit and optimised with respect to their power bandwidth trade-off.
The relationship between the WPs is illustrated graphically below.

 EMBED Word.Picture.8 

The seven WPs will be carried out in parallel.

Activity 1.6 MIMO Systems
WP1.6.1 MIMO Broadband Channel Models
Cellular MIMO system design requires an accurate characterization of the propagation environment across the cell in order to optimally leverage the spatial degrees of freedom for capacity maximization. Our general goals are (i) to devise a MIMO channel model where the channel parameters are assumed random accounting for the variation of propagation conditions across the cell and (ii) to characterize the impact of the geographic variation of channel parameters on the achievable MIMO gains. Clearly, in order to devise reliable models large numbers of data points will be required. This goal shall be achieved through extensive indoor and outdoor measurement campaigns in the 5.2GHz (indoor) and the 2.4GHz bands (outdoor). The measurement campaign will be conducted using ETH’s MIMO channel sounder.
WP1.6.2 Capacity of MIMO Multi-Access and Broadcast Channels
First results on the capacity region of the MIMO multi-access channel (MAC) for the narrowband flat-fading case and for the MIMO broadcast channel (BC) assuming an idealised narrowband flat-fading channel model and perfect channel knowledge at both the transmitter and the receiver have been reported recently. In the course of this WP, we plan to derive the capacity region of the MIMO-BC in the general case, investigate whether the recently established duality theory for MACs and BCs can be used to infer properties of the broadband MIMO-BC from insights into broadband MIMO-MACs, study the impact of propagation conditions on the capacity regions of MIMO-MACs and MIMO-BCs, study (sub optimum) encoding and decoding strategies for MIMO-MACs and BCs and the associated performance behaviour, study the impact of propagation conditions on the capacity regions of MIMO-MACs and BCs.
WP1.6.3 Signaling in Multi-User MIMO Systems
The choice of preferred spatial transmission mode in a MIMO system, i.e., spatial multiplexing or space-time coding depends crucially on the propagation conditions. The goal of this WP is to study questions revolving around the optimal allocation of spatial degrees of freedom in multi-user MIMO systems taking into account the channel properties. Moreover, we will rely on the channel models obtained from WP1.6.1. In this WP we plan to address the following issues: optimal allocation of spatial degrees of freedom via characterization of the resulting capacity regions, scheduling for MIMO systems, impact of propagation conditions and channel knowledge on optimal allocation of spatial degrees of freedom.
The relationship between the WPs is illustrated graphically below.
 EMBED Word.Picture.8 
Activity 1.7: Mobility management, Handoff algorithms, network information theory
WP1.7.1 User Mobility Tracking
User mobility tracking is an important aspect of mobility management. Mobility tracking is essentially a problem of on-line estimation in a non-linear dynamic system, for which the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is so far the main solution. Recently, Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) filters have been proposed has a promising alternative to EKF, allowing to deal with the non-linear dynamic in a more reliable way. We propose in this WP to further examine the following issues: Design an efficient nonparametric tracker relaxing the assumptions on the prior model for user movement, specify more efficient methods for handling nonlinearity, use of more realistic signal model taking into account the spatial and temporal dependence of the shadowing process.
WP1.7.2 Handoff Algorithms
One of the most important problems for 3G wireless service is handoff management. Recently, new class of handoff algorithms have been developed based on various optimization criteria, with very simple underlying signal models which does not take into account the user mobility. In this WP, we propose to consider novel strategies to couple (both soft and hard) handoff and mobility tracking, in order to optimize a handoff cost, which make a compromise between the number of handoff and the a criterion assessing the link quality. A natural and challenging extensions of this work is to consider handoff in heterogeneous systems to support universal connectivity for mobile users, and quality of service (QoS) constraints for mobile connections.
WP1.7.3 Network Signaling and Coding Strategies
The extent to which the promised performance gains in MIMO wireless networks can be realised in practice depends critically on the network signalling and coding strategies employed. In this WP, we plan to assess the performance of various signalling schemes under realistic propagation conditions, extend the theory of network coding to fading networks, design network codes, and derive optimum allocations of the available spatial degrees of freedom to the different MIMO transmission modes.

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Department 2. MIMO radio channel modelling for design optimisation and performance assessment of next generation communication systems

Three activities have been identified within Department 2:
Realistic characterization of MIMO systems
Stochastic channel modelling for MIMO applications
Model-based channel estimation techniques
Each partner in the project has demonstrated international expertise in some relevant fields within the proposed research areas. Each area embraces the competence fields of several partners. Hence, a successful achievement of the identified goal requires full exploitation of the synergy effect resulting from merging the partners’ skills. Activity 3 will be performed in collaboration with the partners involved in Department 1. It is also planned to initiate a close cooperation with some of the selected NoEs focusing their research activities on experimental channel investigations.
The mentioned research areas are subdivided into the following four workpackages.
WP2.1 Realistic characterization of MIMO response matrices
The general purpose of this work package is to develop realistic random models for MIMO response matrices and to investigate in detail the properties of these matrices that are critical for communication systems using space-time coding techniques, like the probability distributions of their eigenvalues, the number of effective eigenchannels, and the capacity.
WP2.2.1 Stochastic channel models for MIMO applications
The objective of this work package is to extend and refine recently proposed generic models for geometry-based stochastic models. Special attention is going to be placed on the actual implementation methods of the models, and the impact that these methods have on the performance of MIMO systems tested in those model environments. The WP puts the emphasis on parametric description methods, especially the geometry-based stochastic channel model and the tapped delay-line model. In a geometry-based stochastic channel model (GSCM), the directionally resolved impulse response is related to the location of scatterers. These locations are chosen stochastically, following a certain probability density function. The actual impulse response is then found by a simplified ray-tracing procedure. An alternative, but theoretically equivalent approach, is the use of a discretized version of the joint angular delay power spectrum (ADPS), i.e., a generalized “tapped delay line” model.
WP2.2.2 Computer implementation of channel models for MIMO application
The main purpose of the work package is to develop a MATLAB implementation of the stochastic models derived within work package WP2.2. As models are including more information (especially more directional information), they are becoming progressively more complicated. One of the biggest obstacles for realistic simulations nowadays is the effort for writing simulation programs and the uncertainty created by the impact of different implementation of (the same physical) channel model. Providing MATLAB routines to all NoE partners will significantly alleviate those problems.
WP2.3 Model-based channel estimation techniques
The general objective of this work package is to assess how the knowledge and results earned within WP2.1 and WP2.2 can be exploited to (1) identify efficient, i.e. accurate, robust and feasible, channel estimation algorithms and (2) to optimise strategy for channel acquisition and estimation in wireless communication systems. More specifically, estimation techniques relying on an accurate model of the effect to be captured will be investigated, like for instance direction estimation for slightly scattering sources. Another focus will be on optimisation of data-aided channel estimation techniques.
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Department 3. Design, modelling and experimental characterisation of RF and microwave devices and subsystems
The activities in this department are organised into the following four WPs:
Power amplifier linearization
Oscillator phase noise modeling and estimation
Micromechanical systems as filters in wireless applications
On the integration of microwave front-ends
WP3.1 Power amplifier linearization
Experimental characterisation and modelling of solid-state devices used in amplifers will be tackled. Large signal characterization of transistors must involve load-pull measurements. Load-pull measurements in the presence of modulated signals like WCDMA or OFDM signals will be of particular importance. Once the linearity requirements of power amplifiers for such signals are well defined, we plan to find system models of amplifiers, and try to reduce the intermodulation distortion by techniques like predistortion or nonlinear equalization. We plan to work on new methods of amplifier linearization. We propose to develop numerical tools based on Harmonic Balance method to predict the nonlinear performance of RF devices. SiGe HBT transistors are highly linear devices with very promising characteristics. Power amplifer design techniques will be investigated with a focus on these devices.
WP 3.2 Oscillator phase noise modeling and estimation
Phase noise in oscillators used in wireless systems can be a severe limitation to overall system performance, especially in OFDM systems where carriers may be closely spaced. We will develop system models of oscillators, and study methods to reduce the effects of phase noise. The undesirable results of transmitter phase noise can be reduced if the receiver can estimate the phase by using pilot symbols. We will also develop device-level models suited for oscillator design, in particular models for the noise behaviour able to provide a correct estimate of the oscillator noise in the presence of conversion.
WP 3.3 Micromechanical systems as filters in wireless applications
Full integration of receivers is not possible if one uses SAW filters in a superheterodyne receiver. Microelectromechanical structures in silicon devices provide a way of obtaining resonant structures on the same substrate. The activity will be organized around the following point: Simulation of MEMS filters using CAD tools, estimation of their performance in terms of loss, quality factor, size, and electromagnetic simulation of the RF performances of MEMS.
WP 3.4 On the integration of microwave front-ends
Around Europe there are a number of different but related activities towards building blocks for monolithically or hybrid integration of RF front-end. The instruments we need in Europe for the advancement of integration techniques will involve both evolutionary and revolutionary concepts on both the antenna side and on the integration technique. The objective is to structure the work towards the design of RX/TX system integrated with the antenna forming either a RF SoC or SiP. The work will be done in close collaboration with WP3.1 - WP3.3 since the components in these WP's are to be integrated together with the antenna structure to form the RX/TX system. The type of configuration depends on the application and could include reconfigurable RX/TX front-ends for adaptivity to signal environment.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. All WP's are planned to start at the first month and to have the duration of 18 months.


Department 4. Analysis, design, and implementation of digital architectures and circuits
For this research department the planned activities concern the architectural design of critical digital subparts of beyond 3G wireless systems, with specific focus on channel decoding, software defined radio tranceivers and architectures for multimedia applications. Also the design methodologies to be applied in the development of Intellectual Properties for wireless systems will be studied. For the first 18 months, the activities have been organized around the following four activities.
Activity 4.1 IP design framework for SOC
WP4.1 IP design framework for SOC
The objectives of this workpackage are to put in place a design framework for SOC and to build shared IP libraries to be used for the cooperative simulation and development of wireless systems. Three main phases are identified as:
Define of a common or compatible design flow, identify the most suitable tools, adoption of coherent interfaces and interconnect structures. This include a study of state of the art design methods, languages and system design tools
Validate the design using existing circuit architectures
Design the first set of IP's using the design flow. A first block to be design will be a turbo coder/decoder for block codes. The design flow will be also used for other IP's developed in the frame of sub-topics 2, 3 and 4.

Activity 4.2 : Architectures & Circuits for high performance channel decoders
WP 4.2.1 Analogue turbo decoder
The objective of this topic is to design a complete fully integrateble analogue decoder. Two main phases are identified as:
Definition of the analogue decoder’s structure. This implies identifying the proper topology for fabrication process and temperature variations robustness. Other elements to study are the analogue data memorisation, implementation of the interleaving law, analogue demodulation.
Design of each single block and the overall decoder.
WP 4.2.2 High-level modelling of iterative decoders and implementation on programmable SoC
The objective of this topic is to design a flexible and reconfigurable architecture for turbo decoders; reconfigurability will be referred to the most important system-level parameters (such as data rate, block size, ...), but also alternative architectural structures will be supported for different power, latency and throughput requirements. The work will be structured in the following activities
Analysis of system level requirements for turbo codes and study of proposed architectural solutions.
Development of a high level versatile models of turbo decoders to perform architectural comparisons among already known and novel solutions, in terms of power dissipation, throughput, latency, ...
Definition of the overall decoder architecture with the required flexibility characteristics
Design at the RT level and verification of the turbo decoder architecture.
WP 4.2.3 Parallel implementation of Low-Density Parity-Check decoders
While the traditional approach to perform iterative decoding in turbo and block turbo codes exploits the inherent sequential nature of the decoding algorithms, a very promising alternative solution is to accomplish iterative processing in a block parallel method. An important class of powerful codes that can be decoded following this approach includes Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. It is well known to digital circuit designers that parallel architectures are very interesting from an implementation perspective, as they generally offer for a given algorithm attractive solutions, in terms of reduced power consumption, high throughput and simple control unit. The objective of this WP is to investigate the properties of the LDPC decoding algorithms and to develop optimised dedicated parallel architectures supporting different power, latency and throughput trade-offs.
All WP’s of Activity 4.2 are planned to work in parallel, from month 1 to month 18

Activity 4.3 Reconfigurable Hardware/Software Platforms
The objective of this activity is to identify the most suitable hardware and software architectures able to support the requirements of a complete heterogeneous communication network which equipment should support the reconfiguration process. Six workpakages have been identified, plus a seventh for the coordiantion of the others.
WP 4.3.1 Hardware Architecture.
A suitable hardware choices will be identified for processing modules (DSPs, FPGAs, ASIC coprocessors), and processor arrays topologies and interconnect structures.
WP 4.3.2 Digital Front-End (DFE)
A Software Radio Wideband Multistandard Front End architecture will be consist of two main blocks, separated by a very powerful Analog to Digital Converter. The first block called Analog Front End (AFE) will keep classical analog functions which could not be performed in the digital domain. The second block, called Digital Front End (DFE) will perform in the digital domain some functions formerly done in the analog domain, such as for example I/Q conversion, standard and channel filtering and selection. Processing a wideband signal in the analog domain will result in some degradations (such as non- linearities). The objective of this WP is to deal with theses problems by means of suitable algorithms.
WP 4.3.3 Software Architecture.
The activity will address the requirements to manage at a high level of abstraction and in a unified way the different hardware platforms; the methodology will be scalable and reusable for different hardware platforms. The WP will also address software parameterisation techniques aimed at improving the software size, the run time, the sharing between components.
WP 4.3.4 Definition of the Platform Reconfiguration Manager.
This WP will be in charge of several functionalities, such as providing information on resource availability, handling of the platform reconfiguration process, interaction with the overall network reconfiguration controller, translation of the generic code (Virtual Machine) to the current platform, the process execution manager, support to the download mechanism, etc.
WP 4.3.5 Integrated Development Environment.
The workpackage will be related with the design of the behaviour monitoring subsystem and its interaction with the development tools in order to provide proper solutions to the observed misalignments.
WP 4.3.6 Common Layers RATs
Concomitantly to the platform development, the three lower layers (Physical, MAC, RLC) for at least two heterogeneous RATs will be designed together with the required procedures to reconfigure from one RAT to the other.
WP 4.3.7 Coordination & Integration
The objective of this workpackage is to coordinate the work performed in the other WPs providing the necessary feedback mechanisms to provide a suitable and realistic solution for the issues assumed by each WPs.

The relationship between the indicated WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below, through a Pert diagram.


















Activity 4.4 Architectures and circuits for multimedia applications
WP 4.4.1 VLIW architecture for multimedia
The objective is to design a flexible and parameterized VLIW architecture capable to support a wide set of multimedia applications, with given constraints of performance and power dissipation. The activity on multimedia technologies will start from the analysis of the architectures proposed both in the literature and in the DSP market.
The second phase will be oriented to the definition of the architecture, with particular emphasis on VLIW architectures, SIMD and MIMD solutions, enhanced multiprocessing capabilities and advanced jump and loop management strategies such as ``zero overhead loop'' and ``branch prediction''; performance and power figures will be obtained for these solutions, the instruction set will be defined together with suitable power management strategies.
The final phase of this activity will concentrate on the implementation and validation of the architectures and the compiler. This phase will give the first experimental results on performance and power consumption.
WP 4.4.2 IP for joint source/channel coding
The objective of the activity will be the development of a set of HW and SW IP's in the field of joint source/channel coding. The work will start with the analysis of the most promising proposed techniques for joint source/channel coding, algorithm characteristics and implementation requirements. Then a high-level model (as an example in C) will be written in order to perform both a profiling analysis to find the most demanding blocks and to understand the algorithm sensitivity to finite precision representation and quantization phenomena.
The following step will deal with performance and power consumption estimations, that can be obtained compiling the high level model on DSP platforms. Depending on the specific algorithm this methodology can put in evidence which parts are most suited for hardware implementations and which ones should run as software modules.
The final phase of the activity will give the complete library of optimized IP's; in particular it is important to investigate issues as parallelism (which usually increase performance, but tend to increase the power consumption), resources allocation, pipelining.

All WP’s of Activity 4.4 are planned to work in parallel, from month 1 to month 18.

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Department 5. Source coding and reliable delivery of multimedia contents
This Department focuses on the means that will have to be implemented, at the frontiers between source coding, channel coding, and other networking levels, in order to introduce the required amount of robustness in source coders for 3-G and beyond 3-G wireless systems. In the past, most techniques in this area were applied to still image and video. This group will also take audio signals into account.
Activity 5.1 General tools for robust source coding and transmission
Reliable transmission can be improved by various means, some of which have been studied for a long time, and requires some specific basic tools, the study of which has been grouped in an activity which encompasses ways of increasing robustness at the source and channel level. In some cases, the use of such tools does not put the separation between source coding and channel coding into question. This Activity will be split into four workpackages.
WP 5.1.1 General tools for source coding of multimedia content (e.g. with QoS)
The aim of this workpackage is to provide other NEWCOM researchers with a number of tools for source coding of multimedia content, which can then be used in different research work. Two aspects will be specifically investigated: high dimensional structured vector quantisation and model-based coding. Work on model based coding of images and speech will focus on both improving modelling techniques, and optimising the transmission of the model parameters, by using better quantisation and channel coding techniques.
WP 5.1.2 Unequal error protection: the level of protection is adapted to the sensitivity of the various parts of the bitstream
The main goal is to set up a generic methodology for UEP optimisation, and to be able to use it for different sources and wireless channels. It should lead not only to a better average quality, but also to reduced quality variations. Specific applications will also be investigated, aiming at performing UEP for wavelet encoded images and turbo codes, and also video over IP. In addition, UEP will be investigated for transmission of the internet Low Bit rate Codec (iLBC) with UDP-lite. Adequate protection levels for different classes of bits have yet to be found for this speech codec.
WP 5.1.3 Index assignment for robustness against channel noise
The aim of this work package is to extend the concept of IA to channel coding, i.e ensuring that the most important quantisation steps are better protected against channel error than those which are of lesser impact. It is similar in concept to Unequal Error Protection, but rather that optimising the protection between various parameters, it optimises the protection between the various possible values of each parameter.
WP 5.1.4 FEC designed for packet erasure channels
Forward Error Correcting (FEC) Codes are one of the main reliability mechanisms in packet networks for real-time and multicast transmissions. The design of codes for erasure channels must take into account very specific parameters such as the size of the symbols (i.e. the packets) or the properties of channel. Classically, the two main classes of erasure codes are maximum distance separable (MDS) Reed-Solomon-based codes with an optimal correction capability and LDPC-based codes with fast encoding and decoding processing.
The main goal of this workpackage is to evaluate these codes in packet erasure channels, and more specifically for wireless transmissions, and to propose solutions suited to different types of erasure channels.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. All WP’s of Activity 5.1 are planned to work in parallel from month 1 to month 18. Collecting contributions in Activity 5.5 (Common software platform, described below) will ensure careful comparative evaluation of the methods, which is the result of WP 5.5.5.

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Activity 5.2 Joint source and channel decoding
A second set of techniques works essentially at the decoder side, and aims at providing better source decoders, jointly or not with the channel decoder. Initial works in this area focused on the Variable Length Code structure, while more recent works also tend to make use of the source structure. Such source structure can be, for example, residual correlation or forbidden codewords due to the source semantics. In many cases, the use of such tools do not put the separation between source coding and channel coding into question at the encoder side, only the decoder has to be more flexible. Four workpackages have been identified.
WP 5.2.1 Concealment of packet loss and time-jitter
Error concealment tools have the purpose of providing a minimum degree of quality even in the case of packet losses or packet arrival delay jitter; they attempt to either correct the errors or to estimate the missing data from the received ones. We intend to address the design of video and speech concealment algorithms so as to optimize both PSNR/SD and the quality of the restored sequence. The devised algorithms for video may employ both temporal and spatial interpolation, as well as texture analysis/synthesis. All the realistic situations of sparse MB loss patterns, slice losses, and also whole frame losses are taken into account. The devised algorithms for speech may employ pitch tracking as well as evolution of voicing and spectral envelope in both loss and jitter concealments.
WP 5.2.2 Source decoding taking into account the structure of the VLC's (soft or hard)
Traditional source decoders are implemented as a simple one-to-one inversion of the source compression algorithm. However any error in the encoded sequence may result in an unpredictable stream of errors in the decoded sequence, an effect known as “error propagation”. To avoid this, decoders must be devised that take into account the structure of the variable-length codes and the probabilistic model of the source for which they were designed. The objective of this workpackage is to concentrate the efforts of its participants in searching for new methods to decode intelligently while taking into account the structure of the code. The resulting decoding algorithms could be used on their own, or as part of the iterative source and channel decoding algorithms considered in WP 5.2.4.
WP 5.2.3 Source decoding taking into account both the VLC structure and the source structure
This workpackage aims to investigate and develop decoding algorithms for situations where the decoder has a more accurate model of the source than was used to design the source encoder. The decoder then uses this model as well as its knowledge about the code structure to improve its performance. Again, the resulting decoding algorithms can be used on their own or within an iterative source-channel decoding framework considered in WP 5.2.4.
WP 5.2.4 Joint Source and Channel Decoding (Turbo Source-Channel Decoding etc.)
Communication systems are designed with separate channel and source decoders. It was always clear that this design is not optimal in terms of the distortion between the source and the output of the source decoder. Only, the design of joint source and channel decoders was deemed too complex for practical implementations. Since the advent of turbo coding and the iterative decoding methods that come with it, we have learned that the performance of joint decoders can sometimes be attained by iterating over two decoders. The aim of this package is to design joint source and channel decoders, possibly using iterative techniques, where the iterations are over the channel decoder and the source decoder.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. All WP’s of Activity 5.2 are planned to work in parallel from month 1 to 18. Collecting contributions in Activity 5.5 (software platform) will ensure careful comparative evaluation of the methods, which is the result of WP 5.5.5

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Activity 5.3 Joint source and channel coding
A third set of methods require a specific design of the encoder. In some cases, this design of the encoder amounts to artificially increase the natural redundancy in the encoded bit stream. This can be obtained either by changing the “decorrelation tools” (such as linear prediction, transforms, filterbanks, wavelets) in such a way that they leave more redundancy (Multiple Description schemes belong to this category), or by introducing “forbidden” states in variable length codes. Most available methods implicitly work on erasure channels (the location of the block in error is known), while the wireless channels certainly require additional error localisation properties (which can be obtained through the use of real-valued BCH codes and oversampled filterbanks). Ultimately, source and channel encoders are not distinguishable, and have been merged generic source/channel encoders, a category which encompasses the “Shannon mappings”). The Activity is divided into four workpackages.
WP 5.3.1 Resilient Variable Length Codes and related decoding methods
Residual redundancy in the source symbols can be useful to assist the channel decoding. In this workpackage, we define methods to introduce controlled redundancy in the source (“resilient variable length codes”), and identify the related hard and soft decoding strategies. Then, the topic of exploiting the residual source information in iterative source-channel decoding schemes is addressed.
WP 5.3.2 Multiple description coding
Multiple description coding (MDC) is recognized as an effective method to protect multimedia information transmitted over networks subject to erasures. In fact, MDC makes the quality of the recovered signal dependent only on the number of received descriptions, and not on the position of possibly lost packets. In this workpackage, we intend to explore various methods to generate MD of image, video and speech/audio sources. Due to its practical relevance, MDC as post-processing of standard co-decoders will also be considered.
WP 5.3.3 Source coders allowing error localization and correction
Multiple description schemes were initially designed in such a way that the signal can still be understandable (with a slight loss in quality) when some source packets are lost, i.e. they are implicitly working with erasure channels: the network provides the knowledge of the loss location. However, in mixed internet/wireless channels, that are forecast in a near future, it is likely that some random errors will arise in the wireless link. It would thus be useful to introduce the redundancy in the source (like in MD) in such a way that localisation and correction of these isolated errors is feasible. A first tool is known for obtaining this property : spectral codes in the reals. The properties of this toll will first be demonstrated and characterized, and a systematic search for other possible ways of obtaining this property will be undertaken, either in multiple description schemes, or in over sampled filter banks.
WP 5.3.4 Joint source and channel coding
In joint source channel coding the source and channels coders are co-optimised, thus enabling match between the two signal modalities, and possibly close to optimal channel bandwidth efficiency. Graceful degradation when the channel conditions deteriorate is a side-effect. The first objective of this work package is to make a software demonstrator for a state-of-the-art model. Furthermore, in-depth studies will be undertaken to establish new source-channel coding configurations including source coders, non-linear mappings and channel access methods. Finally, transcoding for interfacing the new modalities with the backbone network will be studied.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. All WP’s of Activity 5.3 are planned to work in parallel, from month 1 to month 18. Collecting contributions in Activity 5.5 (software platform) will ensure careful comparative evaluation of the methods, which is the result of WP 5.5.5.


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Activity 5.4 Methods requiring transmission of quantities between various network layers
Finally, some methods require transmission of quantities between various network layers. The exchange of information between the source decoder and the channel decoder is such an example (included in Activity 5.2), but other networking levels could be involved too. This point could be important for beyond 3-G wireless systems, and could lead to a full joint design of the system. This set of methods clearly has strong connections with the “cross layer optimisation” project within NEWCOM, and joint work will be performed. A single WP has been identified.
WP 5.4.1 Resilient multimedia transmission over QoS enabled packet networks
Robustness against transmission errors and packet erasures can be obtained by means of several techniques operating at physical layer – unequal error protection, multiple description coding, exploitation of residual source redundancy or a priori information. However, it is expected that highly adaptive and context-aware techniques will be necessary to guarantee high levels of perceptual quality of service in a context characterized by high mobility and strong network heterogeneity, from all levels ranging from PANs to cellular. To achieve such aims, a strong multidisciplinary approach involving both physical and upper layers will be almost certainly a requirement. This workpackage aims at identifying possible synergies among the various layers in order to achieve a global quality optimization.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. Collecting contributions of Activity 5.4 in Activity 5.5 (software platform) will ensure careful comparative evaluation of the methods, which is the result of WP 5.5.5.

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Activity 5.5 Common software platforms
We propose to build a common software library grouping the tools we are developing for reliable transmission of multimedia content. The basis of this platform will be a software implementation of the classical coders for speech, audio, and video, that are forecasted to be the state of the art at the time of NEWCOM’s launch.
Based on this, the NEWCOM researchers will be able to provide the tools they are studying, disseminate them among their colleagues, and promote cooperation, since most tools studied in the department are compatible. Furthermore, researchers coming with other new algorithms will quickly be able to evaluate their efficiency and flexibility, compared to more standard implementations.
WP5.5 Software library for source and channel coding and communication applications
In order to prevent duplication of development efforts, we propose to build a common software library grouping the tools we are developing for reliable transmission of multimedia contents. Standard freely available libraries for source and channel coding and communication will constitute the basis of this library. It will be supplemented with more sophisticated tools in order to provide all NEWCOM researchers efficient, well-documented and easy-to-use building blocks that will be reusable for implementing the tools developed in the other WPs.
WP5.5.2 Platform for reliable speech and audio transmission
The first aim of this second workpackage is to provide other NEWCOM researchers with a platform for speech and audio coding. This platform has to be easily configurable in order other researchers can test the methods they developed in the other WPs on speech and audio coding. This work will help NEWCOM researchers which are not specialists in speech and audio coding to implement the techniques they develop to such type of application.
The second aim is to collect the results of the various techniques proposed by the WPs for reliable delivery of speech and audio in order to help identifying the strong and weaker points of each technique.
WP5.5.3 Platform for reliable image transmission
The first aim of this third workpackage is to provide other NEWCOM researchers with a platform for image coding. This platform has to be easily configurable and in order other researchers can easily test the methods they developed in the other WPs on speech and audio coding.
The second aim is to collect the results of the various techniques proposed by the WPs for reliable delivery of image in order to help identifying the strong and weaker points of each technique.
WP5.5.4 Platform for reliable video transmission
The first aim of this fourth workpackage is to provide other NEWCOM researchers with a platform for video coding. This platform has to be easily configurable and in order other researchers can easily test the methods they developed in the other WPs on speech and audio coding.
The second aim is to collect the results of the various techniques proposed by the WPs for reliable delivery of video in order to help identifying the strong and weaker points of each technique.

WP5.5.5 High-level analysis and comparison of reliable techniques towards practical applications
Many techniques for reliable delivery of multimedia contents are addressed by NEWCOM’s researchers: joint decoding, introduction of residual redundancy, UEP, source-channel coding etc. The aim of this WP is to identify the strong and weaker points of these various techniques covering the area of reliable transmission. Recommendations will be made about which of them could give the best improvements on which systems, whether they would have an advantage in being combined or not, etc.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below. All WP’s of Activity 5.5 are planned to work in parallel over a period of 18 months. A first step in Activity 5.5 (software platform) is to set up a common platform encompassing reference algorithms (WP 5.5.1), then WP 5.5.2-WP 5.5.4 work in parallel, and a comparative evaluation of the methods is finally obtained in WP 5.5.5, which will not be finished at T0+ 18.

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Department 6. Protocols and architectures, and traffic modelling for (reconfigurable /adaptive) wireless networks

Wireless networks have different characteristics (e.g., a high bit error rate, non-stationary users) and different constraints (e.g., limited energy resources and available bandwidth) with respect to wired communication systems. This implies that new solutions have to be designed for wireless networks, at every layer of the protocol stack. In this research activity we intend to develop a new protocol suite better tailored to this environment. Objective of the proposed protocols will be maximizing performance while decreasing cost in terms of battery and network resource consumption. A proper understanding of the traffic sources in the network and appropriate traffic models to capture their behaviour are crucial for protocol design. Research work on a new protocol architecture and research work on traffic models are therefore integrated within the same research activity. The work on traffic modelling has two main goals: to improve traffic modelling techniques compared to the state of the art, and to provide a simulation platform for testing the newly developed protocol architectures and protocols. The research work will be integrated into a single simulation package, which includes both traffic models and models of the new protocol architecture.
The two research activities described in Section B4.2 1. will be divided into 4 workpackages.
Activity 6.1 Protocols and architectures fro reconfigurable /adaptive wireless networks
WP 6.1.1 Study of the state-of-art and definitions of system requirements, scenarios and workloads
The first objective is to make a literature survey on relevant research on the state-of-art on protocol architectures for wireless and heterogeneous networks and on traffic models to provide a common ground for further work. Of special interest is support for QoS, mobility, and congestion control, but also compatibility with the TCP/IP protocol suite. The work will start with an extensive literature search finding relevant papers. It is, however, also vital to involve many researchers in this process to find all relevant research. The findings need to be classified into different areas like: cross-layer interaction, modifications to TCP/IP, and new protocol architecture proposals. Thereafter the main features of these protocols should be listed (input to WP6.2) and a survey written. The second objective is to find the set of requirements that a new protocol architecture tailored for a heterogeneous network that include both wireless and wired segments should fulfill. To aid the evaluation process relevant scenarios and workloads should be specified.
WP 6.1.2 Design of protocols and architectures for reconfigurable/adaptive wireless networks
A new protocol architecture will be developed, which satisfies the requirements set in WP6.1. The proposed architecture will be adaptive to the application environment. Compatibility with current wireless systems architectures will be maintained. The WP activities will begin identifying the set of functionalities required to satisfy the requirements set by WP6.1.Then, the relationships between such functionalities will be analyzed. This will be the basis for the protocol architecture effective design phase. The first goal of this phase is understanding whether it is possible to satisfy the requirements provided by WP6.1 applying the traditional layered approach. If this is the case, the second task will be to investigate on the possibility of maintaining the same layers defined in the TCP/IP protocol stack with the same functionalities. If the layered approach cannot be used to fulfill the requirements then a new approach will be searched for. In any case, the blocks forming the architecture will be identified along with their functionalities and interfaces. The blocks identified will be then filled with the new protocols, which will be defined in detail. Compatibility with current wireless systems protocols will be guaranteed. The new protocols required in each block will be designed and defined in the form of pseudocode. During the design the interactions with other protocols will be considered. Therefore, joint effort is required by the researchers working on protocols which affect each others. The results of WP6.2 will serve as input for WP6.4.

Activity 6.2 Traffic models for wireless networks
WP 6.2.1 Development of traffic/channel models for wireless networks
Prototypes of improved models for multimedia traffic properties will be developed with a focus on developing more appropriate and accurate models for video traffic. The model will take into account a variety of different potential configurations, including differences in service aspects, transmission aspects, codec types, and video content. Other multimedia types are relatively straightforward to model. New channel/link models for multimedia protocols will also be developed.
WP 6.2.2 Performance assessment of protocols and traffic model
The analysis/simulation work package will use the results from WP6.2-WP6.3 to assess the performance of the proposed solutions via analytical and/or simulation-based methods in a variety of scenarios. In this work package, we will use the new protocol, and the traffic and channel models developed in the work packages WP6.3-WP6.6. This package will consist of the following activities:
Development/integration of protocol/traffic/channel models in one single platform: This activity will address on the development/integration of the protocol/channel/traffic models in one unifying, open-architecture platform.
Performance Study: The integrated model will be used in the performance study of multimedia applications, such as live and stored video, over mobile networks.

The relationship between the workpackages in this department and the timing between the workpackages are illustrated graphically below.



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Department 7. QoS provision in wireless networks: mobility, security and radio resource management
The activities in Department 7 are devoted to design and evaluate strategies for the provision of high bit rate multimedia services under QoS guarantees in future wireless networks that include different radio access technologies (e.g. UTRAN, TETRA, IEEE802.11, Bluetooth, HiperLAN,...). In order to achieve this objective, the efforts and excellence of the involved research groups will be integrated around two different workpackages.
WP 7.1 Framework for QoS provision in heterogeneous wireless networks
This first workpackage pursues the objective of establishing a common understanding of what does QoS provision mean in future wireless systems that combine different radio access technologies. It should establish the basis for the integration of the activities envisaged in the second workpackage. The work will be organized as follows:
State of the art: This activity should focus on literature search to provide the state of the art for QoS provision in heterogeneous networks.
QoS definition: It is clear that in a multistandard wireless system QoS implies the possibility of accessing the desired services over the best available network, with satisfactory performance and reasonable cost. Therefore, QoS guarantees have many faces to consider, in terms of accessibility, reliability, fault tolerance, dependability, energy efficiency, reconfigurability, mobility support, multiservice support, streaming support, multicast support, wide bandwidth, low delay, marginal loss probability, security,... So this activity will be devoted to specify which are the relevant parameters to define QoS in such a scenario as well as the specific problems that should be faced when aiming at ensuring it.
Tools to ensure QoS provision: This activity should aim at developing a list of the tools that are required to obtain QoS in future wireless networks. To this end, possibilities to explore are based on the impact that QoS has over the different OSI layers, including the study of efficient MAC protocols for QoS support, QoS routing in IP networks, development of QoS aware transport protocols, efficient RRM techniques,...
Analysis tools to evaluate QoS performance: Once the QoS framework has been defined, modelling and analysis tools should be developed in order to derive credible results about the performance that can be achieved by means of the studied algorithms.
WP 7.2 Development of specific strategies to guarantee QoS in heterogeneous wireless networks:
It tries to define and evaluate novel strategies in the context of radio resource management, mobility and security in order to ensure QoS for different scenarios and wireless systems. This second workpackage will start during the end phase of the first one, in order to ensure the integration of activities between both workpackages. It will be devoted to:
Definition of scenarios: This activity will specify the characteristics of the scenarios that are of interest to be analysed, in terms of coexistence of radio access technologies such as WPAN (bluetooth), WLAN (802.11, HIPERLAN), WWAN (GPRS, UMTS), TETRA..., services that are expected, deployment scenarios (e.g. cellular, non-infrastructured, fast moving environments,...).
Definition of strategies: This activity will be subdivided in the following sub-activities:
MAC/RRM algorithms for UMTS
Joint strategies in heterogeneous 4G networks
Broadband wireless communications in fast moving vehicles:
Security aspects.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below, through a Pert diagram.


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NEWCOM Projects
Project A. Ad Hoc and Sensor networks

The very nature of the NEWCOM Projects, like the one on Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, is the target of exploiting the complementary competencies existing in the NEWCOM Departments so as the monothematic researches carried out in the latter can converge into multidisciplinary research activities in the former, which, on their turn, can provide valuable feedbacks in a fruitful closed loop. In the case of this Project, fundamental issues dealt with in the Departments with respect to wireless communications in general, have to be specialized to take into account the peculiarities of Ad Hoc and Sensors and the cross-layer approach required by the challenges raised by these networks.
The JPA of this Project will be organized into four Workpackages. Three of them will be devoted to multidisciplinary issues which assume an important role as requirements to Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, such as energy efficiency optimization, QoS provisioning, reliability and scalability support. The Special Interested Groups which will be established in each of these workpackages will also have the task of producing concrete proposals for future multidisciplinary projects (IPs, STREPs).
In each of the above mentioned three workpackages the activity will start with the identification of some transversal issues which have major significance in the area of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks and deserve complementary and cooperative efforts from classical layer-oriented research approaches. This will be the dominant perspective through which the established Special Interest Groups will produce their working documents, ranging from a critical review of the state-of-the-art to reports defining system and functional requirements over protocol and algorithms for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks. In this work, the WPs will tightly interact with the relevant WPs in NEWCOM Departments and other NEWCOM Projects (especially, the one on Cross-Layer Optimization). The fourth workpackage will be devoted to develop specialized environments for simulation, given the current lack of powerful available instruments beyond the traditional general-purpose tools originally devised for wired and infrastructure-based wireless networks.
WPA.1 Energy efficiency optimization in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
Energy efficiency is a crucial factor for successful deployment of ad hoc and sensor networks, as power capacity means longer life time for any component of the networks. Along the general lines highlighted above in the introductory section, this workpackage will focus on joint research to study, develop, and evaluate cross-layer solutions to optimize performance of ad hoc and sensor networks with respect to energy efficiency. Solution will be based on integrated treatment of power control, topology management, routing, transport protocol algorithms, medium access control schemes, scheduling, error control strategies, physical-layer techniques, and smart antenna beamforming to improve energy saving.
WPA.2 QoS provisioning in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
Support of service differentiation can be an essential requirement in ad hoc and sensor networks that aim to convey multimedia information. Along the general lines highlighted above in the introductory section, this workpackage will focus on joint research to study, develop, and evaluate cross-layer solutions to optimize performance of ad hoc and sensor networks with respect to QoS requirements. Solution will be based on integrated treatment of power control, topology management, routing, transport protocol algorithms, medium access control schemes, scheduling, error control strategies, physical-layer techniques, and smart antenna beamforming to maintain a certain level of QoS.
WPA.3 Reliability and scalability support in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
Dinamically varying topology conditions and configuration upgrading requirements pose ever increasing challenges on reliability and scalability of ad hoc and sensor networks. Along the general lines highlighted above in the introductory section, this workpackage will focus on joint research to study, develop, and evaluate cross-layer solutions to optimize performance of ad hoc and sensor networks with respect to energy efficiency. Solution will be based on integrated treatment of power control, topology management, routing, transport protocol algorithms, medium access control schemes, scheduling, error control strategies, physical-layer techniques, and smart antenna beamforming to improve network reliability and scalability.
WPA.4 Simulation Software Library for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
The objective of this WP is to create and maintain a software library for the simulation of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks. The library will contain the software modules developed within the NEWCOM Departments and will be available to all the members of the NoE and other European researchers showing interest in it. Appropriate interfaces will be developed to allow interaction between the different software modules. The work will start with the definition of the standard interfaces and relationships between software modules. The possibility of being ns-friendly will be studied. Furthermore, appropriate mobility models will be developed. Such mobility models will be implemented within a software simulation framework specialized for ad hoc and sensor networks. Each software module will be a C++ object. Detailed description of the methods will be produced. The software simulation modules will be collected in a library available through the NEWCOM web.

The relationship between the various WorkPackages is illustrated graphically below, through a Pert diagram.

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Project B. Ultra-wide band communications systems
WPB.1 Channel modeling
The objective of this WP is to define and implement a number of appropriate channel models for performance evaluations. The UWB area is still characterized by lack of proper channel models. Available channel models for other systems can, in most cases, not be used, since the UWB signal bandwidth is much larger. IEEE 802.15 has recently developed some channel models for UWB, but they are at least limited by the fact that they are so called block fading model, with no time varying within each block. In this WP we intend to develop suitable channel models for some UWB scenarios. The first step will be to define the scenarios for which models must be developed. The second step is to find as much information on channel modelling and channel measurement as possible from the open literature, since we do not have the possibilities to make measurements on our own. The third step is to define the models that fit nicely to known results. The final step is to implement them in a suitable form such that the models can be made available to others.
WPB.2 Common UWB physical layer test platforms
The objective of this WP is to define and implement a common test environment and platform for performance evaluation of UWB physical layers. One problem with current research results in UWB (and many other areas), is that they can not be easily compared, because system assumptions are too different. In this WP, we intent to develop a common methodology for UWB physical layer performance evaluation, such that results from different research groups following this methodology can easily be compared. Step one is to define the type of systems that should be included in the method. Step two is to develop the methods to be used and step three is to implement them in such a way that they can be used in different simulators. If possible, the method should be general enough to allow it to be used with many different simulators and also with analytical performance evaluation methods.
WPB.3 Ad-hoc networks with UWB physical layers
The objective of this WP is to develop an ad-hoc network specially designed for a physical layer based on UWB. UWB physical layers have typically very short range due to the limited transmit power than may be used, and due to the large data rates that will be transmitted. In order to increase coverage, the devices have to be connected in some way. One interesting solutions for this is an ad-hoc network, where the devices form a network in an uncoordinated fashion.
In this WP, we will study the implications that an UWB physical layer may have on an ad-hoc network. A network will be designed and the performance will be evaluated.

All workpackages are planned to run in parallel, from month 1 to month 18.

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Project C. Functional Design Aspects of Future Generation Wireless Systems
This is a transversal project with the aim of investigating different aspects of future wireless systems. While the participants of this project will discuss and propose solutions from a system perspective, frequent contacts with all the disciplinary research areas will be maintained. In this way, we achieve a situation where system designers are aware of profound scientific landmarks on each relevant research area and where researchers in the disciplinary fields are informed of system issues that might be of crucial importance for the problem formulations. Moreover, we achieve a so-called vertical integration in this project as well as in the disciplinary research areas.
The project is organised into six work packages, each of which is crucial for future wireless systems design.
WPC.1 Access Methods
The objective is to investigate on suitable access methods for future generation wireless systems. The initial activities will start with a thorough investigation of different access methods and formulation of tentative user and service scenarios. Based on these investigations the issues of asymmetry and adaptivity are considered as well as possible. Sharing of bandwidth among operators is another issue, which will be considered in this context. This work will be performed in parallel with all other work packages, that is WPC.2-WPC.6. We anticipate the process of selecting the best access method(s) to be an iterative process where input from the other WP’s together with input from the disciplinary research areas 1-6 will continuously refine the proposal.
WPC.2 Channel Adaptivity
The objective is to define adaptive transmission parameters and adaptation laws. A thorough investigation will be conducted for the following issues:
The time-frequency granularity of the system has to selected and matched to the expected channel time-frequency selectivity.
The properties of different duplex schemes have to be ascertained and ranked.
Functionality for feedback of channel state information and prediction of channel conditions to allow for accurate adaptation of transmission parameters and scheduling schemes must be investigated
Schemes and criteria for scheduling among interfering sectors will be investigated.
WPC.3 Advanced Antenna Configurations
The objective of the workpackage is to investigate on how advanced antenna configurations can be utilized to optimise system performance. In this work package, we will conduct a thorough investigation of how various advanced antenna configurations can be best used to improve the system capacity. The following issues will be studied in detail:
Pros and cons of multiple transmit and receive antennas in the mobile terminals.
Pros and cons of multiple transmit and receive antennas at the cell site.
Pros and cons of simultaneous transmission and reception of signals at separately located antennas e.g. at multiple cell sites.
WPC.4 Radio-network Structures
The objective is to investigate on the structure and organisation of future radio networks to obtain high system efficiency. In this work package, we will investigate different concepts like organisation of cells and sectors, and relaying to improve coverage and performance. Both capacity and quality aspects will be studied.
WPC.5 Compatibility
This WP will focus on the investigation of the feasibility of having terminals with reconfiguration features. One issue will be to investigate to what extent transmitter and receiver features can be reused or reconfigured to support different standards and what architectures are most suitable in this regard. Another issue is to investigate novel solutions such as canonical description languages for open architecture transceivers.
WPC.6 Reference Scenarios
The objective is to define reference scenarios, which address user perspectives, service perspectives, and terminal perspectives. First, a thorough investigation of possible service and user perspectives will be conducted. Second, we will investigate what implications this have on a terminal perspective and on the system design as a whole.

Because of the transversal nature of the project and the aim of considering functional design aspects, it is natural to proceed in an iterative manner. Another reason for using an iterative procedure rests on the fact that all the above work packages depend on each other: If a certain choice is made in work package four, then it will inevitably have consequences for work packages one to three and five. Likewise, changes in the scenarios would imply changes in all the other work packages. We thus intend to run all work packages in parallel to enable a continuous refinement. Moreover, the intention is to appoint a coordinator for each work package. The work package coordinator is responsible for contacts with the disciplinary areas to make sure that information is properly exchanged.

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Project D. Reconfigurable radio for interoperable transceivers
Instead of just duplicating existing communication modes, the terminal should integrate them within one common framework to limit the terminal size and production cost, while at the same time maximize the adaptivity to the communication conditions. This holds especially for the major components of an air interface like the modulation and multiple access scheme. On the one hand, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) rely on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation to achieve high data rates over frequency-selective fading channels, employing a low-complexity receiver. On the other hand, 3G cellular systems rely on Wideband Direct-Sequence (DS) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to increase capacity and facilitate network planning. Recently, OFDM and CDMA have been combined to exploit the advantages of both. Our objective is to design a common transceiver that captures the essential elements of existing and future air interfaces with respect to modulation and multiple access scheme.
WPD.1 Flexibility in Baseband Digital Signal Processing
This WP will deal with four main topics:
Identification of commonalities between exisiting standard and enhanced air interfaces, consisting of a detailed study of the functional components of the existing WLAN and 3G cellular standards. Based on this study, we will identify commonalities and differences between the two baseband architectures and study how they can be integrated together in order to support also advanced air interfaces
Design of a flexible transceiver model, in which we will design a flexible transmission scheme that captures all important communication modes such that both existing and future modes can be instantiated as special cases of the general scheme. Next, we will develop a common receiver structure that copes with the performance degrading effects caused by multi-path propagation and multiple access interference
Performance comparison of the different modes in varying propagation environments, in which, starting from realistic design constraints, we will identify the important modes and submodes, and assess their performance and complexity requirements in different operational scenarios
Development of CQI estimation/prediction algorithms and transceiver reconfiguration algorithms. In order to select the optimal mode with respect to the channel conditions, we will define measures that capture Channel Quality Information (CQI) in an accurate and concise way. Algorithms to estimate and predict CQI over longer periods of time will be developed to steer the intra- and inter-mode switching. In addition, reconfiguration algorithms that translate the CQI parameters into the inherent transceiver parameters will be studied.
WPD.2 Flexibility in RF Front-end
The ultimate aim is to achieve user-centric services in which the users do not need to be aware of which networks or standards their telecommunications equipments utilise. In this case, the move from legacy, mono-channel, mono-band radios to standardised, open-architecture, multi-channel, multi-band radios is a formidable challenge for the world scientific and engineering industry. Faced with this aim, the industry and the customer have to focus on the technology needed to develop viable reconfigurable or software radios and, perhaps more importantly, on an innovative approach to acquire the technologies and develop them. True reconfigurable or software radios encompass numerous hardware and software technologies that are either state-of-the-art or still under development. An overview of the key RF front-end objectives and technologies required for software radios are wideband antennas,·RF conversion and IF processing. Significant regularity and standardisation issues also require to be addressed from a research perspective.
As a starting point, this WP will analyse existing and possible future air-interface standards. Then, it will define an ideal architecture and the specifications required for each element, and the possible technological innovation and advancement making them a realistic proposition. From this it is then possible to derive, model and simulate antennas and RF/IF architectures, which are realistic in terms of component performance, rather than continuing to pursue the ‘ideal’.
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Project E. Cross Layer Optimisation
Despite the success of strict layering in the design of present-day communication systems, new scenarios with multimedia traffic over fading channels in cellular and ad-hoc network call for the simultaneous optimisation of problems that have hitherto been treated in isolation. The present project brings together expertise from several fields to seek solutions to some of the challenges as outlined in the following workpackages.
Activity E.1: Multiuser Diversity Enhancement
As many of the other research activities to be addressed by the NEWCOM NoE, the scope of multiuser diversity improvement techniques is also rather wide.
WPE.1.1 Channel aware scheduling concepts for a multiantenna downlink with imperfect channel knowledge
We are interested in developing scheduling concepts for a multiantenna downlink in a cellular multiuser scenario, in which the scheduler has some knowledge about the quality of the channels to the users (e.g. SNIR), but does not know the channel between each antenna element and each user.
WPE.1.2 Joint otimization of random beamforming and scheduling algorithms
We are interested in jointly optimizing random beamforming and scheduling concepts for a multiantenna downlink in a cellular multiuser scenario. Our objective is to jointly optimize the generation of the antenna weights used for the beamforming and the scheduling algorithm with regard to different measures, e.g. overall throughput, variance of throughput among users, throughput under QoS constraints, etc.
WPE.1.3 Joint access point selection and beamforming for efficient wireless access
We study the joint problem of AP assignment and beam-forming in a multi-cell system. We intend to investigate the impact of smart antennas on the access layer and the incurred performance benefits of this joint approach for cases where a user can select among several APs from which it can receive useful signals. The study will include access schemes with orthogonal or non-orthogonal channels.

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Activity E.2: Cross-layer Information Exchange for Achieving Optimal Performance and Routing
This research activity has a rather wide scope and hence it may be divided into three WPs.
WPE.2.1 Scheduling for maximum throughput with smart antennas in multi-cell environments
We wish to answer some of the issues that arise in the central controller that coordinates AP selection and transmission in a multi-cell multi-user system. We will investigate issues pertaining to the impact of smart antennas, packet arrival patterns or channel variations on buffer dynamics at the controller.
WPE.2.2 Protocol optimisation via cross-layer dialogue
Providing the network with efficient resource management while guaranteeing QoS requirements may be achieved by means of interaction between the physical layer and medium access control sub-layer. Many of the underlying assumptions of traditional MAC protocols become obsolete under the new signal processing advances made available at the PHY layer. For instance, traditional MAC protocols were designed without taking into consideration multiuser detection and multiple antenna capabilities. An assessment of the impact of such advanced physical layer techniques will aid to the design of wireless-oriented MAC protocols. The goal is to analyse and design optimal MAC algorithms with multi-packet reception capabilities under the scope of PHY-MAC dialogue.
WPE.2.3 Channel assignment and power control for PAPR reduction in OFDM/MC-CDMA systems
We want to investigate the problem of reducing peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM transmission by means of MAC layer channel assignment and physical layer power control. By joint consideration of these adaptation actions, we intend to design algorithms to provide quality of service (QoS) to users in terms of acceptable PAPR during transmission.

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Activity E.3: Subsystem Design Integration
WPE.3.1 Receiver performance trade-off analysis
Again, in this research activity there is a one-to-one correspondence with the WP concerned. Two important performance metrics for physical layer in a portable or handheld terminal are data throughput rate at a given required BER level, and power consumption. In an application with time-varying traffic pattern, the data rate requirement will be variable. With a fading channel, the requirements to modulation method, algorithm complexity and SNR will vary also. Given a reconfigurable terminal, where consumed power can be controlled by changes in word lengths, clock rates and algorithm complexity, the variations above opens for the possibility of tuning the power consumption to just the right level at a given time. The goal is to search for trade-offs between design parameters that result in a minimization of power consumption for a given QoS level under fading channel conditions.
All workpackages are planned to run in parallel, from month 1 to month 18.
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B8.3 Activities to Spread Excellence
As spreading excellence means enriching the European scientific community outside the network, in terms of both research and teaching, activities to spread excellence are planned on both directions.
Spreading research excellence
WPS.1 Workshops and Conferences
This WP deals with the organisation and sponsorship of major international conferences and workshops; this activity will greatly contribute to the dissemination of research results within the network members and to the outside world. The WP will also be involved in the preparation of sessions in international conferences, and of special issues in international journals. A more ambitious objective of the WP is related to the organization of new high quality conferences or workshops to be held in Europe and focusing on novel important research themes related to wireless communications and not yet adequately covered by existing events.
WPS.2 NEWCOM Dissemination Days
The objective of this WP is to create an Annual Three Days event where NEWCOM presents its research activities and the main obtained results. These NEWCOM Dissemination Days will be open and specifically devoted to industries and institutions external to the network, that will be invited to listen to the technical presentations and participate to discussion sessions. Besides the spreading of knowledge, these events will also provide opportunities for establishing new cooperation links between the Network participating and external industries.
WPS.3 Creating and running an Electronic Newsletter for NEWCOM
This WP will establish and make worldwide known within the Scientific Community a NEWCOM Electronic Newsletter. The Newsletter will make publicly available the Network life, also in terms of offered opportunities, such as for example summer schools, conferences and seminars schedule, Post Doc positions, available Master and PhD theses, new launched projects.
WPS.4 NEWCOM on-line Journal
Currently, there is no truly European scientific publication in the field of wireless communications with a large circulation, and the time may actually be right to found a traditional paper journal (with traditional subscription) with that aim. The on-line journal, with possibly short and fast scientific communications might turn out to be a fundamental tool to disseminate information, and the organization and management of it will surely foster integration within the network. Initially, the bulletin will simply have the function of hosting “free” contributions by the nodes, but a special section subject to review will be soon organized, and will act as the initial “seed” of a European Journal on Wireless Communications (EJWC). Many participants into the network have a long-standing experience of editorial management of scientific journals at the highest level, so the competence to carry out successfully such an initiative already exists.
WPS.5 Feasibility Assessment of a European Society of Wireless Communications
Currently, no European Scientific Society for wireless communications is active. The goal of this WP is the assessment of the opportunity to create an European Society for Wireless Communications (ESWC) using the NoE as a launch pad but aiming to a permanent initiative.

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Spreading teaching excellence
WPS.6 Continuing and training education
The WP objective is to transfer knowledge to teams external to the network, by offering courses taught by internationally renowned experts and/or research leaders. Advanced short courses on specific themes related to the wireless communications and more extensive and structured training courses will be offered to industries and institutions. This kind of education will be offered on demand and under conditions that have to be specified case by case to researchers that are not members of the Network.
In addition, we mention among the planned activities to spread teaching excellence also two other workpackages included in the Integration Activities: WPI.7.1 Permanent program for lectures and seminar broadcasting and WPI.7.2 Summer/Winter school organization. Although these schools and lectures are mainly directed to the Network researchers and PhD students, they will be also extended to institutions and industries that are not NEWCOM members under specific conditions and agreements.
All the described activities are expected to run in parallel, from month 0 to month 18, with the exception of WPS.5, Feasibility Assessment of a European Society of Wireless Communications , which will start at month 6.
B8.4 Management Activities
Management activities create the administrative framework on which the network operates, and support all NEWCOM partners, and the governing bodies of the network, in monitoring project progress, integrating activities, spreading excellence, knowledge and IPR management. The three main activities described in Subsection B4.4 give rise to six the following workpackages.
WPM.1Establishment of the network office
Establishment of the Network Office within the Istituto Superiore Mario Boella to support the activities of the entire network as outlined in section B.7.
WPM.2 Management of the scientific activities
Coordination of the scientific direction of the NEWCOM network by the NEWCOM Director, the Scientific Committee and the Executive Board. Organise the various meetings, prepare the minutes, and diffuse them through the NEWCOM web site.
WPM.3 Management of the administrative activities
Coordination of the administrative operations of the network and reporting within the network to maintain momentum and integration of activities. Production of NEWCOM handbook which ensures that all partners follow the same administrative, financial and project management rules, in order that there is coherence in procedures and in financial, technical and administrative reporting.
WPM.4 Activities of the Advisory Board
Assurance of the ongoing quality of the scientific research undertaken within the NEWCOM network through the establishment of an external Advisory Board, and their involvement in the Joint Programme of Activities of the Network.
WPM.5 Knowìedge management
Knowledge management within the NEWCOM network involves the gathering, organisation, analysis, refining and sharing of the knowledge of the partners in terms of resources, documents, and the key competencies of staff. The NEWCOM project will support knowledge management through the use of collaborative tools for knowledge sharing, and analysis of the relationships between content, people and activities into a knowledge map for the network. Appointment of a member of the Executive Board who will be responsible for knowledge management within NEWCOM.
WPM.6 IPR management and exploitation
To offer to all partners the option of having their most promising results evaluated toward the possibility of being transformed into new entrepreneurial initiatives. This action will take the form of support and consultancy on matters like idea evaluation, patent screening, business plan preparation, seed fund raising, etc. In doing this, specific competences of some NEWCOM partners possessing a significant experience will be exploited. Appointment of a member of the Executive Board who will be responsible for IPR management and exploitation within NEWCOM.
B9. Other IssuES
The ethical issues outlined in the FP6 proposal documentation do not relate to the subject matter which is the focus of the NEWCOM Network of Excellence. Here follow the tables that are required to be filled.

Does your proposed research raise sensitive ethical questions related to: YESNOHuman beingsNOHuman biological samples NOPersonal data (whether identified by name or not)NOGenetic informationNOAnimalsNO
We confirm that NEWCOM proposal does not involve:
Research activity aimed at human cloning for reproductive purposes,
Research activity intended to modify the genetic heritage of human beings which could make such changes heritable
Research activity intended to create human embryos solely for the purpose of research or for the purpose of stem cell procurement, including by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer;
Research involving the use of human embryos or embryonic stem cells with the exception of banked or isolated human embryonic stem cells in culture


Confirmation : the proposed research involves none of the issues listed aboveYESNOYES
Beyond the research and teaching activities in the scientific field of wireless communications, NEWCOM will explore the possibilities of creating a new Department on economical and social impact of the wireless technology. Some steps in this direction have already been done by contacting suitable departments and people in the participating institutions, such as Politecnico di Torino and University of Surrey. In the first year of existence, NEWCOM will look for competent research group in wider societal implications of the wireless technologies in the University partners, with the objective of launching a parallel set of activities in those fields.


B.10 GENDER ISSUES
The percentage of women among the NEWCOM researchers and PhD students amounts to about 14%. Women coordinate only five out of the 54 research units. As a term of comparison, the percentage of female members of the IEEE at December 2002 is 8.4%, and in more detail: 17.9% of student members, 10.4% of associate members, 5.8% of members, 2.6% of senior members, and only 1.55% of IEEE Fellows; only one woman, against 20 men, has been elected honorary member of the IEEE. We can conclude that the NEWCOM figures are slightly above the overall percentage of women involved in IST, percentages that are monotonically decreasing with the career position. These rather modest figures deserve careful consideration, the starting point being that women are not attracted by science and technology, and there is something that prevents them from putting their skills to the service of society.
The NEWCOM researchers are conscious that the problem is a serious one. It is our firm opinion that it cannot be tackled with shallow or dilettantish countermeasures, which are not driven by a profound reasoning about its motivations. Actions such as financial support to promote participation of women in scientific conferences, or grants to be assigned to female PhD Students, can be of some help, and will actually be pursued in our network; but they do not address the very core of the question, which is not only a matter of money. Organizing constraints such as imposing a minimum number of women taking part in the project, or a minimum number of women in the Scientific and Executive Boards, are often rejected by women themselves, which do not feel as much as giant pandas. They would better become members of Executive Boards without raising any doubt about the fact that they actually deserve that role due to their own skills.
Women are often in difficulty for practical as well as human reasons. The former, being easier to cope with, and also in some sense inducing less insecure feelings in male people, have been largely emphasized up to know. No doubt, women more frequently than men must cope with logistic difficulties in the children and elderly people care, due to the lack of proper infrastructures. This notwithstanding, the new generations of men are willing to share with women the pleasures and responsibility of children care and yield an even increasing contribution to the family life, at least for highly cultured society segments we are supposed to deal with. It is clear that many things can be done, at European level, to support not only women, but people at large, in the hard tasks of children and family care. But is this sufficient to guarantee truly equal gender opportunities? In our view, the answer is definitely no.
Anyone who works in strict cooperation with women knows that they suffer from serious difficulties in keeping the professional and the private life well separated. In other words, having children hosted in nursery schools for ten hours a day, or elderly people accommodated in efficient and professionally skilled hospitals, is often not sufficient. Women feel a strong need of being there, sharing both physical and emotional presence with other people. On the other hand, this arises a number of problems, which must be recognized in order to identify countermeasures.
A direct consequence is that most women experience problems with mobility. For many of them, moving frequently from one place to another, to attend conferences, give lectures, join meetings, is felt as a distressing experience. On the other hand, in the dominant working culture, mobility is considered as a major condition for success, and, in our opinion, this is also a substantial reason why women experience difficulties in their career. They are put in front of two harassing alternatives: either giving up, accepting to play marginal roles, or behaving like men, deliberately ruling out profound emotional needs.
Within NEWCOM, we intend to face this difficulty directly. First of all, mobility of female PhD students will be incentivized, in order to make young women able to know several excellent research areas, and to capture the spirit of Network of Excellence, building a trait-d’union between scientists (men and women) of prestigious universities. On the other hand, the set up of powerful network and videoconference infrastructures will allow women – as well as men - to pursue their research and education activities limiting travels, without substantial impact on the quality of the research done and ultimately on their career. In other words, we want to privilege scientific quality in its very essence, without necessarily forcing a given working model to achieve it.
Another fault, which is often imputed to women, is to feel uncomfortable in a highly competitive environment. No doubt some women feel uneasy when called to tough competition with colleagues, being unable to consider working competition as a divertissement or a sport. On the other hand, when the involved goal is considered worthy, women are able to pursue their objectives firmly. We are convinced that such different attitudes not only can coexist, but also represent a true wealth for society. Actually, different working styles are indeed possible, driven for sure by a healthy intellectual competition, essential to achieve true scientific excellence, but also by other features such as empathy, attention to human aspects and respect for others’ feelings, cultural differences, belief, and needs.
We are aware that this is, to some extent, Utopia. Nevertheless, the researchers of NEWCOM intend to promote and to disseminate their own personal styles of excellent (male or female) scientists, hoping that the proposition of different working models to students and PhD will encourage young women to follow their natural inclinations and spontaneously approaching the tough world of scientific research.
B.10.1. Gender Action Plan
Besides the will of promoting gender equality, exploiting the cultural experience of already enrolled female NEWCOM researchers, several specific objectives will be pursued, and related actions will be undertaken. As already discussed, these actions will not be in the direction of imposing constraints or reserve positions explicitly to women, but instead they will aim at encouraging spontaneous participation.
Objective 1: reaching an 18% of women taking part in the project (on average between researchers or PhD Students). As discussed, at present the percentage is about 14%. This will have to be harmonised with the EC rules of modifying the researchers-PhD students within the partners as the project evolves.
Related Action(s): each participant institution will promote the participation of female staff in the project, possibly discharging them from other routine duties.
Objective 2: reaching a 10% of women in the Scientific and Executive Boards.
Related action(s): the parameters addressed to select people which are going to enter such boards will be tuned so as to be unbiased with respect to the gender dimension.
Objective 3: promoting women participation in scientific conferences.
Related action(s): a number of travel grants per year will be assigned to female PhD students to attend international conferences in wireless communications. The selection of the NEWCOM best paper award will be driven by utmost respect of gender issues.
Objective 4: promoting female participation in PhD programmes.
Related action(s): mobility of female PhD students among universities participating in the project will be incentivized, also providing scholarships to support students’ traveling and accommodation. Initiatives will be undertaken with participant universities to make girls aware of the opportunities offered by entering the research world
Objective 5: promoting discussion and awareness of gender issues.
Related action(s): a web site and a mailing list will be created, in which women involved in NEWCOM can exchange their knowledge and opinion on gender issues in wireless communications, thus creating a portal that could be act as a forum for new ideas on possible projects specifically addressing impact of wireless communications on future society actually featured by gender equality. Links with networks of women scientists will be created. Female NEWCOM participants will promote seminars and workshops to raise consciousness of gender issues.
B.10.2. Specific Gender Issues in NEWCOM
Wireless communications constitute the enabling technology for the paradigm “anywhere, anytime, anymedia” of the ubiquitous computing. Needless to say, once this paradigm will be fully accomplished, it will provide a strong support to human work and be used to allow anyone temporarily unable to participate in cooperative work to do it remotely. This certainly goes into the direction of guaranteeing equal work opportunities for women and men. NEWCOM, being a network of excellence aimed at integrating research in wireless communications, can provide valuable means for the achievement of this goal, and ultimately, to the construction of a society characterized by a higher level of moral rightness, social equity, and ultimately citizen’s realization and happiness.


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